Hi folks I’m beginning a program for all you that want to learn a few words in Kalapuyan. The language went extinct in spoken form in 1954. Recently there are some new products that you may want to pick up. Henry Zenk’s translation of Louis Conoyer’s biography is available now and called My Life, By Louis Conoyer
The Kalapuyan word today is also short lesson in how to say animal names. Most animal names have an “a” in front of them as part of the word. “a” means “the”. So the word for Coyote is “sni” pronounced “snee” but its normally written as “asni” “asnee” meaning, the coyote or a coyote. This is Santiam dialect of the Kalapuyan language. Qa’pai (hello and goodbye)
Esther Stutzman used in a sentence…
Tsum hodni asni….. “I see a coyote.”
The Kalapuyan word today is “Umsho” or “Umsu” spoken- “oomsoo” or “oomshoo”, either one, meaning “it is good” or “Thank you”, from Santiam Chelamela, Yoncalla. Thanks Mike Langley for the prompt
Your Kalapuyan lesson for 2/21/18 (Santiam Base)
Kansu ye? Are you well?
Aha, kansu. Yes, I’m well.
Kansu I’m fine
Kalapuyan lesson for 2/22/2018 (Santiam base)
Matuq ye kwauk? – Where is he/she?
Kwauk pi __[name]____ – He/she is ________
Kwauk Hasi – He/she is Here
Kwauk Kusi – He/she is There
Kwauk lakayo. – He/she is Far away
(there is no separate word for he or she as far as has been found, the word kwauk is he or she)
Kalapuyan lesson for 2/23/2018 (Santiam base)
Ye ponyeklna nishtenfai Miye kus? – Can you tell me who it is? Tumkwat _________ – My name is ______
Kwauk kwat _________ – His/her name is _________
Ma Kwat ______ – Your name is ____________
Kwinnik kwat _______ – Their names are ________
Tiamim – His people
Ta-amim – My people
Tommim – Relatives (my relatives)
Mitmi’imimi – It looks like a person.
Maliwi’ kamini – There are lots of people.
Kalapuyan Lesson for 2/25/2018 (Santiam Base)
Sometimes gender can be determined by the activity, generally always men hunted in Kalapuyan culture.
Moki – Deer
Amoki- a deer, the deer
menma- men, people
Amenma- the men
Gus- to go, went
Gus amenma gumi’ yuwel. – The men went hunting.
Kwauk kumhodn amoki. He/she saw a deer.
Kwamdahai gus amoki. – He/she killed a deer.
Kwamplatsatni tauna antausak tse amoki. – He/she shot an arrow at the deer.
Kwamawuki gus amoki duma – He/she brought the deer home.
Laumde, kwauk duwaqi gumtsakalwana gus amoki -Then his wife dried the venison meat
Kalapuyan Lesson for 2/26/2018 (Santiam Base)
Regarding the “a-” as an article on animal names – here with fish – its the same rule except we see “an-” or “am-” being used in many instances. So for Salmon the word for salmon is “tmuwak” but written many times as “antmuwak” “the salmon” or “a salmon.” “a-“, “an-” or “am-” can appear in animals, fish, birds, really anything including people/humans, and the likely version is chosen for ease of speaking the phrase.
Amenma- the people
Antmuwak – the Salmon
táu – eel (lamprey)
Antáu – the Eel
Pataufe – trout
Ampátaufe – the trout
’ká – chub
An’ká – the Chub
kwáska – sucker
Akwáska – the sucker
ya’i – steelhead
Anya’i – the steelhead
kawan – fish
Akawan – the fish
Kalapuyan Lesson 2/27/2018 (Santiam base)
An-. Am-, A- is the noun marker meaning the/a.
Da/ ta – Sister
Kuni – Brother
Nana – mother (for children)
Na – mom/mother
Fan – father
Ankefu – a grandfather
Anketso – a grandmother
Ankifa – a grandchild
waiwa – woman
Awaiwa – a Woman
pine/ pina – girl (yes two spellings)
Ampine/ ampina – a Girl
oihe – man
Anóihe – a Man
yiwatsat – boy
Ayíwatsat – a Boy
BTW my favorite word so far is: “Madfan”- all of it
Kalapuyan Lesson for 2/28/2018
nau here appears to mean “and”, this is what I have for now I will look for numbers like one thousand, but until then we will go with ten one hundreds, ” Tenife Taune Tumpye”
Tauna – One
Gemet – Two
Pshin – Three
Tafa – Four
Wan – Five
Táfo – Six
Pshinue – Seven
Kēmůwĕ – Eight
Kuista – Nine
Tenife – Ten
Tenife nau tauna – Eleven
Pshin tenife – Thirty
Taune tump’ya – One hundred
lupga Tump’ya- two hundred
ok found “one thousand” – Wan lupga Tumpya
Check-in for Kalapuyan lessons— Ok we have over a week of these and I have heard all positive comments. This obviously is not the way to learn and become fluent with the language. But we have had discussions elsewhere about people wanting to learn Kalapuyan. i too am a learner, i just happen to have a lot of, if not all of, the sources of studies of the language. From Kalapuyan peoples I hear people are very interested in this and I have heard scattered comments over the past ten years about restoring Kalapuya language. I plan to continue doing these lessons, but are people interested in doing more? Right now the tribe has no investment in the language and so this is completely a project of myself and some of the Yoncalla and Eugene folks, Esther Stutzman and family, who have devoted the last few years to planning and meeting about the language. It is something I have always wanted to do, and I am not getting any younger, time does not magically make itself free and available to me and So I have to give up a bit of my time and a little travel to study Kalapuyan. If people are interested in meeting in the Salem Area I am willing to begin scheduling informal classes. For people In Eugene there May be opportunities to join the Eugene-Yoncalla classes we have about one every month or so. Regardless, I plan to keep this because I get to work with the language every day in some manner, for at least 10 to 30 minutes. Thanks for the comments and please feel free to ask questions. Please remember though that I am not a fluent speaker, there are no fluent speakers alive, and so everyone working on the language is learning. Spelling may become an issue, but remember, that the tribes did not have spelling before Americans studied the language, so much of the spelling is invented by what anthropologists heard. Finally, I am basing what I post on Santiam dialect because there are two dialects of Kalapuyan that have a large amount of notes, Tualatin and Santiam, and Zenk has really developed Tualatin so I am working with Santiam, they are mutually intelligible dialects of one another, but with some spelling variations. Also I am a Santiam descendant so to me this makes more sense. If you absolutely need notes on the other dialects I can oblige you, because again I have just about everything. Qa’pai
Kalapuyan Lesson for 3/1/2018
This lesson is first about how to ask a question about a specific amount. And about how in the 19th century, the Bostons brought their own language to the Native peoples and words from English began filtering into the languages. The likely origin of the word “Dala” in Kalapuyan is from Chinuk wawa, as most the the Kalapuyans spoke both languages. It was common to see in the notebooks that Chinuk wawa words would be interspersed with and mixed with Kalapuyan words, especially for things the Kalapuyans did not originally have as part of their culture. So we know we have the word Dalla in Chinuk wawa, and its also the same in Kalapuyan. As well we are aware that the original dollars were made from silver or gold, so Dala can also be used to mean silver or gold pieces too.
De lau tso? – How many are we?
De lau nak? – How much is that?
_____ anemna – _____ people
______ dala – ______ dollars
Tenife anema – ten people
Wan dala- five dollars
Tauna – One
Gemet – Two
Pshin – Three
Tafa – Four
Wan – Five
Táfo – Six
Pshinue – Seven
Kēmůwĕ – Eight
Kuista – Nine
Tenife – Ten
Tenife nau tauna – Eleven
Taune Tumpya- One hundred
Kalapuyan Lesson 3/2/2018
Where is someone, here are some general location terms people would use in a conversation.
Matuq ye kwauk? – Where is he/she?
Kwauk pi______ – He/she is ________
Kwauk pi Hasi. – She is here.
Tsu’ nufan? – Where are they?
Dinimadfan pi _________ – They all are __________
Dinimadfan pi Tsilau – They all are nearby.
Tsu Gani’i ? – Where did they go?
Ni Dinip’i _______ – They went ________
Dinip’i Lakayo – They went far away.
Lakayo – Far away
Tsilau – Nearby
Duwukáifa – On the left
Dusufulákwa – On the right
Támiyank – Above
Awala – Below
Hasi – Here
Kusi – There
Kalapuyan Lesson for 3/3/2018
Asking a simple question about who people are. Note Boshtin is likely from Chinuk wawa, which came to mean white people or Americans. The origin is Boston, because all of the early American mariners came from Boston.
Mi nike has? – Who is this?
Kwauk pi_____ – He/she is ______
Kwinnik pi _____- They are ______
Kwauk pi Danana.- She is my mother
Kwinnik pi amenma. – They are Native people (Indians) (our people).
Kwauk- him /her
Kwinnik – them
has – this
Danana – my mother
Punum – your mother
Tine efam – my father
Pufam – your father
Pukone- your brother
Dakone- my brother
Pudaa- your sister
Sidaa- my sister
amim – the people (humans)
amenma – an Indian
damim – a friend
Kus wana amim – a stranger
Tommim – relatives
Boshtin amim- Americans, white people
3/4/3018 Kalapuyan Lesson,
*Santiam- Chenapfa Seasons
Note: the months are not an exact day to day match to those in the Gregorian calendar, the year for the Kalapuyans begins in the Fall. I am guessing in the winter months time passes more slowly, people remained in their houses to stay warm, and out of the weather more, so then time is more noticeable.
Atawiyu Cherry Blossoms, Camas Digging Time, March
Pyan – Spring, April
Megwa- Summer, June
Tahapunaq- Preparing to hunt/Fall, September
Gumpyausyan – Winter Came, December, (may not be the seasonal name, using the word for December)
*Tualatin Kalapuyan Seasons
ampiaush, ampyos – winter
amekw, amegw – summer
anicwálxit – spring
I don’t see a word for fall/autumn in Tualatin so:
Atchiutchutin – September- The time of getting cold – The moon when people are still outside
Atchalankuaik – October- The Time of dead leaves – The moon of gathering wapato roots.
3/5/2018 Kalapuyan Lesson
Melville Jacobs translated Oral History, from Kalapuya Texts 1945
Gus tcíi’pgam gidinigaufu amé’nma, ginigé’cni amím’ dugwá. Ginigáufu’ladi gus ambádafi.
Long ago when people fished, they used their hair * They fished for trout with it.
Didimayík gus angwá, demakáltco dudinidí’, lau’mde denimawú’t hé’lim.
When it bit that hair, it’d hang up in their teeth, then they’d pull them out (of the water).
Pás gini’náhai dinigáufin wat.
That’s how they did it, or so it is said.
*NOTE: They’d tie a tuft of human hair onto the end of the line for a lure.
Which word is Trout?
Which word is people?
Which word is Hair?
Research Xtra-credit: Who told this story?
3/6/2018 Kalapuyan Lesson, Santiam, many words direct from John (Mose) Hudson – Birds
Remember “A-“ or “Am-“ or “An-“ means “a” or “the”, the actual word follows this pronoun.
Ant’uite – Bird
antq’wa’is – Jay
asq’ayaq’ – Bluejay
antí’fu’ – Turkey Buzzard
awingu – Dove
anhaum – Pigeon
Antasnak – Nightingale
Anáq-naq – Duck
Ampúlyu – Hawk
Antsíno – Eagle
Anptsí – Robin
Mútkwil’ – Meadowlark
Antis – Woodpecker
Amo’la – Crow
antuwetsa – Bird’s eggs
Shin naknak- I’m a duck.
3/7/2018 Kalapuyan Lesson- Cooking Camas
The oral histories help us understand how people thought of camas. They had advanced ways of cooking lots of foods. Note also the spelling and use of different symbols for sounds. In development now is something of a sound chart of the southern Kalapuyan languages. This story is published in Kalapuya Texts by Melville Jacobs in 1945. The 3 volumes of Kalapuya Texts are available online at the University of Washington digital library site.
Tcíi’pgam gus ganihemím’ dedinilú’g amplú’ laumde denitú’q amá gúci. Lau’mde gúc denip’í
Long ago the people would dig a hole in the ground and build a fire in it. Then they’d put in
‘lúi andá. Lau’mde guc andá dedi’úqyo. Lau’mde deni’nícdini ampálakye, “Dé’láu’
many rocks. Then the stones would get hot. Then they’d say to a shaman, “Now
demándad guc andá. Lau’ ye umsú gidupí dudí’b?” Lau’mde gus ampálakye demt’ábad
look at the stones. Is it okay to put our camas on now?” Then the shaman would step on
guc u’úq andá. Gus dent’í tce’hau. Demánde dufá’ Láu’mdé dem’nág, “Ú dis
the hot stones. He’d go across. He’d look at his feet. Then he’d say, “Oh, soon
gamsú amís.” Pec tafodint denidaha’i.
the camas will be done.” That’s how they usually did it.
Lau’mde guc denip’í mádfan dinidí’p. Din’éwi denip’í lúi antsmí’d nau amáwilek dunqwáik,
Then they’d put all their camas on. They’d always put a lot of maple and ash leaves on,
gus méni denip’í. Lau’mde denip’i andíip. Lau’mde denip’í anqwáik tsémiyank gus
they put those on first. Then they’d put the camas on. Then they’d put leaves on top of the
didí’p. Lau’mde dendinibúbni amp’lú . Lau’mde dedinitu’q tcámiyank andá.
camas. Then they’d cover it with dirt. Then they’d build a fire on top of the rocks.
U’úq andá wále demtí. Pac gininahai gidinigé’cni amís.
Hot rocks under it. That is what they did when they prepared cooked camas.
Lau’ gus demantí psínfu ampyán’, táfodint gémi ampyán’. Lau’mde demp’éha’yu amís.
Now then they’d watch them for three days, sometimes two days. Then the camas would get cooked.
Dedinibú’p dinidí’p, táu’na a’wai’wa dinidi’b denp’i meni, lau’mde demp’i púnuk anqwáik.
One woman would put her camas on first, then she’d put a few leaves on.
Lau’mde guc tau’ne’yu wai’wa, lau’mde dentp’i gwau’k dindi’p, lau’mde denip’i púnuk anqwáik.
Then another woman, now she would put her camas on, then a few leaves.
Lau’mde tau’ne’yu dentpi dindi’p. Pec dinawi dinin’ahai.
Then another put on her camas. That how they always did it.
Guc anqwaik deniti wilfi. Gus pe dedinina. Lau’mde madfan ni’yukun tcu’ gwadunipi
The leaves went in between. That’s how they did it. Then all would know where they had put
dinidip. Tafodint denigawadi guc gidunipi’ dinidip. Denilu guc amplu,
their camas. Once in awhile they’d check where they put their camas. They’d dig the soil,
guc denitsima’lk’di tau’ne andi’p, lau’mde denimandadi. Wa’ mabad dendibehedint
there they’d pull out one camas, then they’d look at it. It’d not yet be cooked through,
dendinipi’yu. Lau’mde denitu’q gwélyu. Hec ti dedinimá’lk’ni tau’ne andi’p .
they’d put it back. Then they’d build more fire. Later they’d pull out a camas,
denihodu’ lau’mde dedibehe’yu. Lau’mde denin’ag, “Lau’ umnehe’yu hec amis.” Lau’mde
they’d see that now it was cooked. Then they’d say, “Now this camas is cooked.” Then
deniyuwadi diniduk’yu, lau’mde deniwit, lau’mde denige’wa dinimis.
they’d wait (until) it became cold, then they uncovered it, then they’d gather their camas.
Pec din’ewi gininahai.
Thus they would always do.
Lau’mde guc dedimabúntce amis winhe denitsagal’wani dupyan’. Lau’mde guc danile’tgwane
Then that cooked camas some they dried in the sun. Then they took care of it
din’ewi. Laumde deditcagalu’yu. Lau’mde denip’i guc, guc denihugni dedip’yaus.
all the time. Then it became dry. Then they stored that, that they’d eat in the wintertime.
Dedi’lui ayuba’q dup’lu’, guc denihukni utsagal’u amis. Pec dinewi gininahai.
When a lot of snow’s on the ground, They’d eat that dried camas. This they’d always do.
Questions: Whats the root word for Camas?
What might be the word for cooked?
What does Madfan mean?
The story refers to “her” how can we tell it’s a her?
3/8/2018 Kalapuyan Lesson
Oak savannahs were a big part of the tribal environment. The tribes created the environment by setting fire the land in the fall, September, when the rain began. The fires spurred the oaks to grow more acorns, and weeded out trees and bushes which were not fire resistant. All dead and burnable material was cleared in a few minutes of fire leaving living trees, and bulbs hibernating underground. The fire then efficiently cleared the lands and made it look “park-like.” There are lessons here for today’s land managers, especially for forest lands in the Cascades and Coast Range where we are now headed for continuous massive fire seasons because of climate change and because of the poorly conceived fire suppression practices of the past 140 years. The following Oral History is also from Melville Jacobs 1945 Kalapuya Texts, and either told by John B. Hudson, or translated by him, him being the most reliable of the various consultants who worked with Jacobs in the 1930s.
Preparing Acorns to Eat
Guc an’ulik dedimabehe’yu dume’fa, lau’mde denimahitc wála guc an’ulik, lau’mde guc awaqset
When acorns ripened on oak trees, and when the acorns would fall, then the women
gwinik denige’wan guc anulik. Denige’wa lui’, denimui dudinit’sabu’, lau’mde gus
they’d gather up those acorns. They’s gather many, put them into their soft bags, then
deni’wi’li’ dudinima. Lau’mde deni’tsok du’uq’ amp’lu’ Lau’mde denihemyet.
they’d go back to their homes. Then they’d roast (them) in hot earth. Then they’d remove them.
Lau’mde guc an’ulik dentwic’wiyu. Lau’mde guc dunk’apya’ denip’i. Denitsagal’wani gus
Then the acorns were cracked open. Then they stored the nutmeat. They would dry that
dunk’apya an’ulik. Lau’mde guc dediniholi’ duminihu’k denití isdu dinitsidaq nau guc deni’múi’
acorn nutmeat Then they wanted to eat they had a small soft bag and they put in it
winhe guc anulik. Lau’mde ginip’i dupgi yikun tafo’ ampyán’ nau tafo’ awi’fya.
Some of the acorns. Then they’d put it in the water for perhaps one day and one night.
Lau’mde denimalkni gus anulik, lau’mde deniputpat. Guc dedibehe’yu denihu’k.
Then they removed the acorns and boiled them. When they’d been cooked they’d eat them.
That’s how they did.
3/9/2018 Kalapuyan Lesson
Some Animal names
Some things I collected on a small project a few years ago. Note the word for Buffalo, is the Chinuk Wawa word. There were lots of borrowing back and forth and intermixing of CW and Kalapuyan in nearly all samples. It was more common than we all know to use other words from other languages if you did not have one in your language. Since Kalapuyans had little or no interaction with Bison/Buffalo (there was some, through trade in furs) they may not have had a word. And its likely all Kalapuyans knew both CW and several Kalapuyan dialects.
Grizzly- Aca′ yum
deer – Amu ′ki’
eels – Ant’a′u
grasshoppers – antgu‘yak
caterpillars – Antca′yε t
Cooked caterpillars – Guc-antca′yε t
Grey squirrel – amu′wal
Gopher – nida′hai
buffalo- amu′ smus (CW)
elk – antqa′’
mussel – aηgwi ′l
Mussel shells – aηgwi ′l Gus-ama′
Screech owl – Du′gulhu
Qa’pai – umshu-
Kalapuya Lessons for 3/10 and 3/11 2018
More stories from Kalapuya Texts. Many of the texts or Oral histories were first narrated by Eustace Howard and then later translated by John B. Hudson. Hudson could translate all dialects of Kalapuyan, and knew Chinuk Wawa and English. The Kalapuyan dialects were all mutually intelligible with one another with slight variations. Hudson was the favorite translator of Melville Jacobs and was paid to go to Seattle to translate the older texts from Leo Frachtenberg and Albert Gatschet. In this regard, Hudson was the tribe’s first linguist in a professional sense. He was also the last speaker of Kalapuyan and passed just before tribal termination.
- UNCOOKED STEELHEAD
Wa’ nendehukni guc anya ‘ai wa’ gamibeha’. HÝc’wa’ gamibeha’ namihuk,
Do not eat uncooked Steelhead. If you’ll eat it uncooked
laga namhelip, gamyac’yu bep’au, lau’mde namtsul’wa.
you may get sick, you’ll have a stomach ache, then diarrhea.
Laga namatsul’walat ayu namimalkwa. PÝc deninakwit guc ginihimim.
Maybe bloody diarrhea when you’ll defecate. That’s what the people would say.
Tsipgam dinewi pec deninakwit gusyi gehukni antmuwak wa’ indebeha.
Long ago always so they spoke if one would eat Steelhead not cooked.
3. TROUT FISHING
Guc tsipgam gidinigáufu amÝ’nma, ginigÝcni amim’ dungwá. Long ago when people fished, they made it (hooks) of hair.
Ginigáufu’ladi guc ambadafi. Didimayík gus angwá demakáltso dudinidí’,
With it they fished trout. When it bit the hair, it got it caught in its teeth,
Laumde denimawú’t hÝ’lum. PÝc gini’náhai dinigáufin wat. Then they pulled them out. That’s how they fished, so it is said.
Qa’pai – Umshu-
Kalapuyan lesson 3/11/2018 -B
To make up for the double post, here is a new lesson about pronouns. Pronouns in Kalapuyan take on a whole new dimension in languages, with nouns and verbs and tenses of verbs having different pronouns. The “words” in the language combine and add all of these elements into each word, called agglutimation. This is much different from English. Linguists would address this differently but I am choosing to talk about these part of words as pronouns because that is what they look like. So check these out, the table and information is from Jonathan Banks Masters Paper on Kalapuyan.
“g-“ (past tense identifier)
“c-“ (present tense identifier)
Gumi- he went
Cumi- I am going
Guman dini yu
They went away hunting again
these are only a couple of the many “pronouns”
Kalapuyan Lesson 3/12 2018
Preparing and eating Grasshoppers and Caterpillars- Another interesting story of gathering cooking and eating insects. Not something I have ever tried. However, this may be our human future as food becomes more scarce, people will have to turn to other food sources including insects. The story is from Kalapuya Texts likely translated by John B. Hudson.