Denial of Humanity: Pseudo-Science and Native Culture

 

Douglas McKay Secretary of the Interior during Termination, Former Governor Of Oregon.
Douglas McKay, Secretary of the Interior during Termination, Former Governor Of Oregon, Car Salesman, Salem, OR.

Denial of Humanity: Pseudo-Science and Native Culture

Expansion of an October 2005 essay, written originally in preparation for a dissertation about termination.

“Denial of humanity” is a quote from Rennard Strickland in reference to the actions and in-actions of the US government with regards to termination and treaties, ie: the rights of Indians to maintain their culture and history and sovereignty.

Termination – what is it? – from the Federal POV they assume the right to manage sovereign tribes, they assume the right to stop managing tribes under their own terms. They assume the right to claim Indian lands through conquest, they make treaties with tribes (in a sovereign relationship) and then they assume they can simply stop abiding by the treaties. Their assumptions comes from the creation of ‘evidence’ that suggests that a tribe is no longer a tribe. Their evidence is based on religious and scientific definitions of what constitutes a tribe, whether they are a tribe without maintaining some of the visual and cultural trappings of the past traditions. Clearly the Senate has a right to abrogate treaties under its plenary powers. But they did not invoke that right, instead the BIA appears to have directed its agents to make it happen. And the agent for Oregon, E. Morgan Pryse, lied and manipulated the available information and the tribes to make termination occur. Congress was assured the tribes had agreed, but they had not. So even though Congress and President Eisenhower stipulated that the tribes had to agree, the Oregon tribes were still terminated without their agreement.

Philosophical argument:
It is an identity issue. Some sub-issues are blood quantum, culture, acculturation/assimilation, and traditionality. Can a tribe be a tribe in the United States when they are acculturated/assimilated into American civilization. Can a sovereign group maintain sovereignty from within a sovereign nation? If this is possible, and it is supported in law, how can the federal government terminate the tribe? In an institutionalized bureaucracy, if the sovereign group exists within that environment, it is possible to arrange the termination of any supported program through the creation of an overwhelming assumption that the persons of that program no longer adhere to the policies and rules of the program and actually have acculturated into different programs. The assumption within the bureaucracy is that each individual group does not cross boundaries between groups and when they do they become a member of another group with no ties to the previous. Essentially their culture has changed.

But we know that people maintain multi-cultural identities. When does the preponderance of evidence suggest that people have acculturated into another culture? Who gets to draw that line. That is not science, its politics.

Yes, this was all made possible through politics. The people who wanted and needed termination to occur went to the media who wrote numerous stories about the benefits of termination. They sold this notion of freedom to the public and the politicians. They said that the tribes would be freed from further government oppression, which was creating the “Indian Problems” and would be free to become Americans. They would get their full benefits as US citizens and be first class citizens.

And what source of investigation and research does the government rely upon to manipulate the acculturation/assimilation line? Anthropology clearly has the major research agenda focused on Native peoples and anthropologists staff many departments in the federal government that manage Indian peoples. Much of the government management of Native peoples, in the 1940s and 50s,  is therefore from a trained anthropological perspective and anthropological theory of native identity is actually practiced in policy.

Anthropology is part and parcel of the problem with the federal government choosing the most acceptable arguments to use again the tribes. The notion of the assimilated Indian is no longer an Indian, no longer culturally Indian, so no longer deserving of the rights of their tribe. But do anthropologists really have the right to decide who is assimilated? That was not even a question, in that time, they took that right without much ethical discussion. Its really with John Collier in the 1920s to 1940s where the morality of the situation becomes apparent. He did try to change the politics for the better. And other anthropologists did not really begin working on behalf of the tribes until the 1950s. This was perhaps too late.

Does assimilation really mean people are no longer deserving of their rights? The treaties do not make this distinction. There is nothing in treaties that address a notion that people must be culturally “Indian” as defined by anthropologists, to get the rights of the treaty. This idea was invented by American politicians.

Similarly, the treaties do not stipulate people have to be one half Indian blood or better to be Indians. That is a policy decision that is aimed at eliminating Indian people through statistics. A certain percentage of each generation of people will marry and have children with non-native people, in time that percentage will grow and there will at some point be no more people who fit conservative definitions of being Indian. Its a political tool by the federal government to eliminate all Indians. And yet today many tribes accept that as part of the definition of what is a tribal member. There is no part of a person’s blood that will provide a measure of a person’s culture or nationality. It is pseudo-science. It is a remnant of our colonization, a remnant that has been institutionalized. We are recolonizing ourselves if we do not address this problem. If tribes do not take control of their definitions of who they are, take that right from the United States,  they will cease to exist.

There is much to be done in addressing tribal colonization. Termination and Indian management needs to be taken apart and reanalyzed. Treaties need to be reanalyzed along with tribal homelands. Tribal histories need to be rethought and rewritten, as its been proven that unless tribal people do this, Native Nations will be written out of history.

Tribes have fought too long and hard to exist, can tribes accept being “defined” out of existence?

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Recognizing Tribal Chiefs from the 19th Century

Tribes have their own holidays. As sovereign nations the events and dates significant to the tribes are dates of their establishment, dates of their treaties and date of restoration and termination,and important people. Some events are not necessarily celebratory, like a termination date, or even a date of removal from our homelands to the reservation, but more relevant to the tribe to remember the pain and suffering that tribes have endured during colonization. Beginning in the 1990s, about the time of the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus “happened upon” the Americas, tribal people began working on modifications to the national holidays that seen as huge negatives to Native peoples. Columbus Day was renamed Indigenous People’s Day at the University of Oregon by the native student organizations and celebrated that way with a day of speakers. This project of renaming these holidays is now being picked up by cities like Seattle and Portland.

There is one day that has interested me for years, Presidents’ Day. A collaboration of several president’s birthdays into one day of celebration. Tribes have renamed this day internally as Tribal Chiefs’ or Tribal Leaders’ Day.  But in my experience there are few details ever noted about tribal chiefs and leaders. I know we had many of them over the last few centuries in Oregon, but who were they? For a population of Native people hungry for information about Tribal histories, I have composed a list of over 100 such leaders for the Grand Ronde Tribe.

The chiefs listed in the following table are only those who appear in treaties of the tribe or who are well known previous to the reservations with published accounts. The extent of this list is only 19th century. For those leaders of the tribe that deserve listing from the 1870s and into the 20th century we will have to expand the table. In the 1870s the Grand Ronde tribe adopted an elective government and elected representatives of the various tribes to sit on the council. All of the elected leaders from those early councils into the 20th century deserve mention. In 1935 the tribe adopted Indian Reorganization, and a constitution with an elected Business committee. The records from this time are incomplete and need to be assembled. And then there are the Council of the tribe from the 1970s to the present, the Restoration era.

My own family history has many relations to several chiefs and leaders of the Santiam tribe, Captain Santiam, and John B. Hudson. John B Hudson was a leader of the Grand Ronde in the 20th century, the last speaker of Kalapuya.  In the 1970s, and probably earlier, Gertrude (Hudson) Mercier was a cultural leader and political leader at Grand Ronde in the restoration era. Several people, aunts, uncles, cousins, in my related families of the Hudson and Mercier lines were elected leaders, traditional chiefs, and cultural leaders in the 19th and 20th centuries.

I hope in the future to add further references to the table.

Chiefs of Grand Ronde Table (incomplete)

 

Record #
Common Name Name variants Title Tribe/band Documents signed
1 Kiakuts Ki-A-kuts,

Ki-ac-Kuts,

Ki-a-cut (1851)

Head Chief, first Chief

Principal Chief (1851)

Tualatin (Qualichah), Wapato Lake, Chehalem Band

Tualatin band of Calapooias

Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855

Twalaty Treaty April 19,1851

2 Le Medecin, Doctor,

La Medicine (1851)

Second Chief Tualatin band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855,

Twalaty Treaty April 19,1851

3 Wapato Dave Wapito Dave, Yat-Skaw, or Dave,Yats-kow Third Chief Tualatin band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
4 Kno-tah Subordinate Chief Twalaty Treaty April 19,1851
5 Shap-h, or William First Chief Yamhill Band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
6 Yah-whos alias Thomas Principal Chief Yamhill Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851
7 Es to le alias Henry Subordinate Chief Yamhill Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851
8 Ai-tip alias Antoine Subordinate Chief Yamhill Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851
9 Peter Sulkey Peter Sulkey (Shelkeah, David) Second Chief Yamhill Band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
10 Cha-ah, or Jesse Third Chief Yamhill Band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
11 Dabo, or Jim, Daboe (1851) First Chief, Principal Chief Cheluk-i-ma-uke band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851
12 Sco-la-quit, or John, Scho-la-que (1851) Second Chief

subordinate

Cheluk-i-ma-uke band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851
13 Yah-kow or Kompetine, Yoh-kow (1851) Third Chief

subordinate

Cheluk-i-ma-uke band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851
14 Ah-mo, or George First Chief Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
15 Himpher, or Hubbard Second Chief Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
16 Oh-no, or Tim Third Chief Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
17 Ma-mah-mo, or Charley Peter First Chief Chem-a-pho or Maddy band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
18 Quineflat, or Ben Third Chief Chem-a-pho or Maddy band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
19 Cha-che-clue, or Tom Second Chief Chem-a-pho or Maddy band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
20 Luck-a-ma-foo, or Antoine, First Chief Che-lam-e-la or Long Tom band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
21 Hoo-til, or Charley Second Chief Che-lam-e-la or Long Tom band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
22 Qui-a-qua-ty, Quia-quaty, Quai-eck-e-te (1851) First Chief

Principal Chief

Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Treaty with Mollalle May 6, 1851
23 Chief Yelkas Yalkus Second Chief Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Treaty with Mollalle May 6, 1851
24 Kow-ka-ma, or Long Hair, Kaw-ka-ma Third Chief Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
25 Crooked Finger Subordinate Chief Mollalle Tribe Treaty with Mollalle May 6, 1851
26 Kiles, or Jim First Chief Calapooia band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
27 Kow-ah-tough, or John Second Chief Calapooia band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
28 Anta-, An-ta First Chief Winnefelly and Mohawk bands Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
29 Quil-al-la, or John Second Chief Winnefelly and Mohawk bands Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
30 Mequah or Dick Winnefelly and Mohawk bands Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
31 Yack-a-tee, or Sam, , First Chief Tekopa band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
32 To-phor, or Jim Brown Second Chief Tekopa band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
33 Hal-la-be, or Doctor, Hal-la-le Tekopa band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
34 Pulk-tah Second Chief Chafan band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
35 Chief Tumulth Tum-walth First Chief Wah-lal-la band of Tum-waters

Cascades tribe

Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
36 Obanahah O-ban-a-hah Second Chief Wah-lal-la band of Tum-waters

Cascades Tribe

Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
37 Chief John Wachino Watch-a-no, Chief John Wachino First Chief Clack-a-mas tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
38 Te-ap-i-nick Second Chief Clack-a-mas tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
39 Wal-lah-pi-coto, Wal-lah-pi-cate Third Chief Clack-a-mas tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
40 Oregon City John Lallak, Lal-bick or John, Oregon City John Clow-we-wal-la or Willamette Tum-water band; Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
41 Cuck-a-man-na or David Clow-we-wal-la or Willamette Tum-water band; Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
42 Tiacan Tow-ye-col-la, or Louis First Chief Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851
43 Joseph Hutchins Yelk-ma, or Jo, Alquema, Joseph Hutchins, Joseph Hudson Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851
44 La-ham, or Tom, Third Chief Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
45 Joseph Sangretta Joseph Sanegertta, Joseph Sangretta, Senegertta Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
46 Pullican, Pul-i-can Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
47 Te-na, or Kiles, Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
48 Pul-kup-li-ma, or John, Pul-kup-ti-ma Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
49 Sallaf, or Silas Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
50 Hoip-ke-nek, or Jack Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
51 Yepta, Yeptah Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
52 Sat-invose or James, Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
53 So-pham Santiam Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851
54 Chief Coastno Coast-nah (1851) Principal Chief Santiam Band of Moolalle Santiam Moolalle Treaty of May 7 1851
55 Chasta Tom Shasta or Chasta Costa
56 Wakaiisisse Columbia River
57 James Selquia (Selqia) Sub-chief Wapato Band
58 Shmohult Klamath
59 LeSekes Klamath
60 Chief Kiesno Chief Keosnose

Kiesno, Cassino, Ciasno,

Principal Chief Columbia River

Multnomah, Sauvie Island

Numerous accounts 1805-1848
61 Polk Scott Polk Scott Yoncalla Shaman, Organizer of Numerous Camp meetings in the Willamette Valley, including Pleasant Hill, and Cottage Grove
62 Chief Jo Chief Jo, Aps-er-ka-har, Jo-aps-er-ka-har, Aps-so-ka-hah, Horse-rider, or Jo Head Chief principal chief Takelma Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Amendment 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854
63 Sam To-qua-he-ar, Sam To-qua-he-ar, Ko-ko-ha-wah, Wealthy, or Sam, Subordinate Chief

Second chief

Takelma Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854, Itchkadowa, Applegate Band of Rogue River Indians (applegate Rpt)
64 Chief John Te-cum-tom, Elk Killer, or John, Ana-chah-a-rah, John

Tyee John

Fourth Chief Takelma

Shasta

Athapaskan

Rogue River 1853

Rogue River 1854

Principal Chief of the battle of Big Bend

65 Chol-cul-tah, Joquah Trader, or George Takelma Rogue river 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854
66 Jim Ana-cha-a-rah Subordinate Chief Takelma Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854
67 Lympe Takelma Rogue River 1853
68 Sambo Third Chief Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
69 Te-wah-hait, or Elijah Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
70 Telum-whah, or Bill Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
71 Hart-tish, or Applegate John Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
72 Qua-chis, or Jake Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
73 Tom Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
74 Henry Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
75 Louis Nepisank Napesa, or Louis, Na-pe-se, Louis Nepissank, Louis la Pe Cinque Head Chief Umpqua Tribe Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
76 Peter, or Injice , Peter McCoy (McKay?) Second Chief Umpqua tribe Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
77 Chief George, Cheen-len-ten or George Head Chief Umpqua Tribes Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854,

Treaty with the Molala 1855

78 Tas-yah, or General Jackson Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
79 Nessick Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854,

Treaty with the Molala 1855

80 Et-na-ma or William, Billy (Molala?) Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854,

Treaty with the Molala 1855

81 Nas-yah or John Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
82 Absaquil or Chenook Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
83 Jo Yoncalla Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
84 Tom Chief Yoncalla Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
85 Chief Halo Halo, Halito

Cama-phee-ma, Fearn

Head Chief Yoncalla
86 Chief Bogus Chief Bogus Umpqua Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
87 Quin-ti-oo-san, or Bighead principal chief Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
88 My-n-e-letta, or Jackson Subordinate Chief Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
89 Tom, son of Quin-ti-oo-san, Subordinate Chief Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
90 Tom, Tal-sa-pe-er Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
91 Steencoggy Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
92

 

Lattchie Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
93 Dugings Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
94 Counisnase Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
95 Cars Calapooia or Umpqua? Treaty with the Molala 1855
96 Jes-tul-tut, or Little Chief Quil-si-eton band, of the Chasta tribe of Indians, Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
97 Ko-ne-che-quot, or Bill Na-hel-ta band of the Chasta tribe of Indians, Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
98 Se-sel-che-tel, or Salmon Fisher, Se-sel-chetl Cow-nan-ti-co, bands of Scotons, Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
99 Kul-ki-am-i-na, or Bush-head, Kul-ke-am-ina, Bushland Sa-cher-i-ton, band of Scotons Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
100 Te-po-kon-ta, or Sam Na-al-ye band of Scotons Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
101 Jo Chief Grave Creek band of Umpquas Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
102 Bas-ta-shin Sa-cher-i-ton, band of Scotons Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
103 Chief Tomaquin Tomaquin Principal Chief Cascades Came from the Clatsop
104 Capt. Santiam Santiam, Capt. Santiam, Principal Chief Santiam Kalapuya Albany area, allotments at Grand Ronde.

 

An Erasure of Native Presence

This past week the University of Oregon announced their new uniforms, based on the discovery and colonization of Oregon by Americans. UO athletics released their “Lewis and Clark” uniforms, as a collaborative project between NIKE, their manufacturer, and the UO Athletics Department.

Tuesday, 10/6/2015, when the news about the uniforms was released, the Native alumni of UO began communicating about the issues in the uniforms through the state. The UO had released a history of colonization, images of the uniforms and descriptions of what each element on the uniform meant. Nowhere in their history of Lewis and Clark explorations into Oregon was there any mention of the Native people they encountered. The mention of Jeffersonian peace medals only mentioned the explorers encountered “individuals”. Then other elements on the uniform symbolized the Oregon Trail, handshakes of peace and friendship, and the founding of the State of Oregon.

There were a number of issues present in the uniforms that cried out for a response from the Native community. Native people were present during all of the historic eras represented and felt the affects of the benevolent colonization of Oregon. The colonization of Oregon was not beneficial to the tribes, who lost millions of acres and ten of thousands of people. Then the tribes were placed on reservations where our cultures were further eroded for the next 150 years. The message in the uniforms as the creation of Oregon being a positive history, was clearly only appreciated by people not affected by loss of land, family and culture. Further discussion online suggested that this was only a PC issue and that we should leave the issues alone. We were clearly not going to be swayed by this.

After the first day of communications over Facebook, the Native alumni decided to write an editorial and present the letter to University administration through their advisory committee relationships. My contribution to the letter was to write the foundation of the historic critique based on what I knew of the time period. The Letter was completed by the morning of Wednesday and presented later that day.

Besides the native critique we questioned how it is that a university with academic departments of history, anthropology and native studies could have produced such a complete reversal of history. University academic departments have been broadening their perspectives over the years and including native and other perspectives in histories. Both positive and negative histories are normal parts of most histories produced today. Its common now for discussions of Native genocide to appear in Native studies and history classes, along with the settlement histories. So the history represented on the “lewis and Clark” uniforms was surprising for its lack of accessing multiple perspectives.

The University responded a day later through the advisory committee and we heard that there would be an appropriate response, that UO Athletics appeared to have not communicated with UO Administration about the history themed uniforms.

On Saturday, game day against Washington State University when the uniforms were to be worn, the UO announced the placement of an outline of Oregon, with nine stars for the 9 tribes on the back of the helmet. The decal was sandwiched between the commemoration of the UCC school shooting the previous  week, and a 33 star US flag, representing the fact the the state of Oregon is the 33rd state in the Union. This same morning a newspaper editorial appeared in Indian Country Today Newspaper online. The article was written by myself and was based on the letter I had helped write to the administration.

It was a grateful surprise that the UO responded so quickly. The native community though is still deeply upset in Online posts. Many wanted them to not wear the uniform at all for what it represented. For many that history of colonization is like that of the Holocaust, because for many tribes that period was a literal holocaust complete with the genocidal destruction of many villages, and the burning of plank houses and dance houses with hundreds of people killed. For a time the settlers to Oregon did try to exterminate all Indians. That is the history that is so close to so many Native people in the West.

The effort did have results, and for that the Native community are appreciative. It would have been much better for the university to consult with some experts  in the field, and the tribes, before this issue occurred. We all trust we all have learned something from this.

Che-Halpam Amim |Land of the Santiam People [Exhibit]

By Gary Olsen-Hasek
Kalapuya Man By Gary Olsen-Hasek
Original- Kalapuyan Man, South of Eugene area, Wilkes expedition, 1841
Original- Alfred Agate- Kalapuyan Man, South of Eugene area, Wilkes expedition, 1841

Installed just last week (9/4/2015) at the Ike [Box] is a new exhibit I collaborated on with the Friday Artists group from Salem. This exhibit is the first part of a larger project to bring more representations of Native people to Salem, the Capitol of Oregon. I hope to continue working with the group in this larger project.

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Tolowa Dee-ni Fish Camp & Chronology

Tolowa Coast Village
Tolowa Coast Village Drawing, artist and date unknown

In about 1997, I met Loren Bommelyn as he began a Masters degree in Linguistics at the University of Oregon. For his second and last year I was his roommate on in a University of Oregon Moss Street graduate house. Loren and his family were very giving of their time and I grew to appreciate their positivism while I was engaged in my Masters studies (the Masters and PhD studies would eventually lead to me becoming the Cultural Resources Manager at my tribe, the Grand Ronde Tribe). Loren had almost single-handedly built the Nelechundun Dancehouse at Smith River, and preserved their language, brought back dancing and singing in the traditional language and songs. Loren wrote the Tolowa Dictionary and devised a new language preservation technique, which is now called the Master-Apprentice system and was implemented at the University of California, Berkeley, which teams elder language speakers with apprentices who become fluent in the program.

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