Over the years I have done a bit of research on the tribes in Oregon. My career in research has crossed from non-digital to nearly full digital for many projects. There is now perhaps 50% of the original manuscripts I use on a daily basis online and available for viewing or digital download. Many more are being enabled as I write. Digital is the future but still cannot replace good archival research skills. Here I am posting annotated online research links. Please notify me if any go out of date. thank you
Berkeley, California Sunsite – http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/, Vast collections online, but confusing groups of cooperative sites, sometimes difficult to navigate.
Google Books- http://books.google.com/, excellent site, many books older than 1920 fully downloadable, includes magazines, and congressional publications, best research site on the internet
Google Scholar- http://scholar.google.com/, good for finding journal article references.
Hathi Trust Digital Library- http://www.hathitrust.org/, viewable only, but they have much not available on Google books in full view.
Internet Archive- https://archive.org/index.php, Second to Google books, they have materials not on other sites, including audio, video and other media.
Kappler’s Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties – http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/, the site for accessing treaties, good for navigation.
Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs; University if Wisconsin Digital Collections, http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/History/History-idx?type=browse&scope=HISTORY.COMMREP , all the hard to find reports are here.
Montana Memory Project- http://mtmemory.org/, newly found site, they have digital viewable federal microfilms, see my other article on the M234 series.
National Anthropological Archives- http://www.anthropology.si.edu/naa/search.html, Again great searchable site, access to some digital downloadable content.
National Archives Experience – Digital Vaults – http://www.digitalvaults.org/#, searchable, good site
Northern Arizona University Digital Collections – http://archive.library.nau.edu/cdm/search/collection/cpa, unexplored by myself, but they have a number of special collections that are fully searchable.
Northwest Digital Archives – http://nwda.orbiscascade.org/index.shtml, searching finding aids for collections in the region.
Northwestern University Library Digitized Collections- http://digital.library.northwestern.edu/, good digital collections, Edward Curtis books are fully viewable, somewhat difficult navigation
Orbis Cascade Alliance, Summit- http://www.orbiscascade.org/, search the regional libraries
Oregon Digital Collections- http://oregondigital.org/digcol/, The collaboration between UO and OSU to digitize their collections.
Oregon Digital Newspaper Program- http://odnp.wordpress.com/, Great site with access to Oregon newspapers from 1840s to 1920s. Some newspapers do not have all of their runs digitized yet, and adding newspapers all the time.
Oregon Historical Society- http://www.ohs.org/, some searchability, this is useful for you to pre-research, print the results and take those to the archives to view the files.
Oregon State Library- http://www.oregon.gov/OSL/, the state of Oregon library with good search interface.
Oregon State University Library- http://osulibrary.orst.edu/, the main site
OSU Special Collections- http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/, good for images and photos
Oregon Digital Library- http://odl.library.oregonstate.edu/record/search, images
Proquest- Dissertation Express- http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/disexpress.shtml, simple search interface, but you have to know already what you are looking for
Southern Oregon Digital Archives- http://soda.sou.edu/, Great site many documents not available elsewhere.
University of Oregon Library- http://libweb.uoregon.edu/, main library site
University of Washington Library, Digital Collections- http://content.lib.washington.edu/, good digital collections, some related to Oregon.
University of Wisconsin- Madison’s Digital Collections- https://uwdc.library.wisc.edu/, all of the Indian Affairs reports, Search Indian Affairs
UO Scholar’s Bank- https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/, some materials related to Oregon tribes.
UO Special Collections and University Archives- http://libweb.uoregon.edu/speccoll/, limited downloadable content, good for finding aids
Willamette University http://libmedia.willamette.edu/commons/archives, a growing collection of history documents, good interface and searchability
Worldcat – http://www.worldcat.org/, best library search site on the planet
Yale University, Beinecke Digital Collections- http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/tags/digital-collections, Lewis and Clark map images
National Archives Records Administration (NARA)- http://www.archives.gov/, Perhaps the largest repository in the world.
Smithsonian Institution- http://www.si.edu/, Lots of museums and sites.
National Museum of the American Indian- http://www.nmai.si.edu/, some good resources, very little digital.
National Anthropological Archives- http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/, a great searchable finding aid, adding digitized documents, and requesting volunteers to help with transcription.
Library of Congress – http://thomas.loc.gov/home/thomas.php, scattered selection of information that is searchable, little but photos for the northwest.
The Library of Congress- American Memory- http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html, Searchable for documents and photos.
Lewis and Clark Trail – http://www.lewisandclarktrail.com/index.html, Some good historic information, images from the journals and journal pages.
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail- http://www.nps.gov/lecl/index.htm, some good information, resources and images of documents.
Oregon State Archives – http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/records/index.html, very good digital collections.
Oregon State Library- http://www.oregon.gov/OSL/, the main library site
Oregon Museums Association – http://www.oregonmuseums.org/index.asp, jobs and events
Washington State Historical Society – http://www.washingtonhistory.org/, some good historical information access to digital collections.
Oregon History Project- http://www.ohs.org/education/oregonhistory/, developing a good digitized database.
Oregon Encyclopedia- http://www.oregonencyclopedia.org/, peer reviewed essays, anyone can write for the encyclopedia
Benton County Museum – http://www.bentoncountymuseum.org/index.cfm
Burke Museum – http://www.burkemuseum.org/, good images of artifacts
Clackamas County Historical Society- http://clackamascountyhistoricalsociety.art.officelive.com/default.aspx
Libraries in Clackamas County- http://www.lincc.org/uhtbin/cgisirsi/x/NT/x/1/517/X/BLASTOFF
Douglas County Historical Society- http://omahahistory.org/, the archival collections are vastly unexplored.
Portland Art Museum – http://www.portlandartmuseum.org/, good digitized and searchable images.
Oregon Coast History Center – http://www.oregoncoast.history.museum/, some reservation images.
Tillamook County Pioneer Museum – http://www.tcpm.org/, good unique collections in their archives.
Willamette Heritage Center- http://www.willametteheritage.org/LaRC/research_library.html, nothing online yet besides history journals, vastly unexplored archival collections.
Washington County Museum- http://www.washingtoncountymuseum.org/, museum exhibits, unexplored archival collections
Yamhill County Historical society and Museum- http://yamhillcountyhistory.org/
Salem Public Library- http://www.cityofsalem.net/departments/library/pages/home.aspx, main library site, very little archives, reportedly getting a genealogy collection
Oregon Historic Photograph Collection (Salem Library)- http://photos.salemhistory.net/cdm/, great images of agricultural work and logging in Willamette Valley
Chemeketa Cooperative Regional Library Service- http://catalog.ccrls.org/, main search site
Grand Ronde – http://www.grandronde.org/
CTGR Virtual Gallery – http://www.grandronde.org/culture/#
Spirit Mountain Casino – http://spiritmountain.com/
Museum at Warm Springs – http://www.museumatwarmsprings.org/
Umatilla museum – http://www.tcimuseum.com/
Indian Reading Series: stories and legends – http://apps.educationnorthwest.org/indianreading/
Indigenous Geography (NMAI) – http://apps.educationnorthwest.org/indianreading/
ATNI (Affiliated Tribes of the Northwest Indians) – http://www.atnitribes.org/
Grand Ronde- http://www.grandronde.org/culture/ikanum/
Coos, Lower Umpqua, Siuslaw- http://www.ctclusi.org/CTCLUSINEW/default.aspx
Cow Creek- http://www.cowcreek.com/tribal-government
Warm Springs- http://www.warmsprings.com/warmsprings/Tribal_Community/
Burns Paiute- http://www.burnspaiute-nsn.gov/
Nez Perce- http://www.nezperce.org/Official/history.htm
Smith River Rancheria (Tolowa) – http://www.tolowa-nsn.gov/
Project Gutenberg Dictionary of Chinook Jargon, George Gibbs- http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/15672
Chinook Jargon – The Hidden Language of the Pacific Northwest- http://rjholton.com/
Chinook Jargon Phrasebook- http://www.fortlangley.ca/Chinook%20Jargon/kamloops.html
Lakota letters and sounds – http://www.lakhota.org/ALPHABET/alphabet.htm
Book Finder- http://www.bookfinder.com/
Global Electronic Music Marketplace (GEMM)- http://gemm.com/
Yahoo Video- http://video.yahoo.com/
Google Videos- http://video.google.com/
Oregon State Archives Genealogy records- http://www.archives.com/GA.aspx?_act=ancestorsearch&klp=ga11001&cam=266&KW2=Oregon&Location=OR&gclid=CLiQiPiZ56sCFWYbQgodDnfrIw
Oregon Genealogical Society- http://www.oregongenealogicalsociety.org/
Access Genealogy- http://www.accessgenealogy.com/oregon/
CA Indian Basketweavers Assoc – http://www.ciba.org/index.php
NW Native American Basketweavers Assoc – http://www.nnaba.org/
Directory of Basket Weaving Guilds – http://www.simplynantucketbaskets.com/BasketryLinks4.html
The Basketmakers Association – http://www.basketassoc.org/index.php
Margaret Mathewson – http://www.ancientartscenter.com/about/
Early Canadiana Online- http://www.canadiana.ca/en/eco
British Columbia Archives- http://www.bcarchives.bc.ca/bcarchives/default.aspx
The British Museum- http://www.britishmuseum.org/
National Museums Scotland- http://www.nms.ac.uk/
Royal BC Museum- http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/MainSite/default.aspx
UBC Museum of Anthropology (MOA)- http://www.moa.ubc.ca/
Hansen’s NW Native Plant Database – http://www.nwplants.com/
The Oregon Medical Association’s Quarterly Magazine, Medicine in Oregon, features an article written by me. The article was completed in November 2014, with images added in December.
When a cloud shadow went along the beach the Indians had racing on the beach with a cloud shadow they could stand a stick up, and racers would see if he could get ahead of a moving cloud shadow when the “norwest” was blowing and a cloud shadow was on the ground. This was a people’s goal, racing a shadow. Father always used to tell about this. -Frank (Coos) [From Harrington notes]
In 1977, I was a young teenager, and I began to venture out of my home on the only means I had, my bicycle. At first the 10 speed I had took me to Waldo Junior High. I hated taking the bus and could get to school in about 30 minutes. The truth is I had a hard time waking up in time for the bus and I missed it a lot, so the bike was about the only way to get there on time. But that experience began getting me in shape. The summers I would venture to my friends houses, some were 3 miles away in the country. We lived on the outskirts of Salem, near Cordon Rd., and some friends lived on virtual farms. Then I began going further.
Over the course of the next six years I would travel through the farmlands east of Salem. I discovered the squarely gridded road system that followed the farmers’ property lines. I found the town of Pratum, more of a wide spot in the road, and an intersection, with a grain elevator and coop. I would stop in Pratum to get a cold coke from the old vending machine. I began following roads like Silverton and Sunnyview to their furthest extreme. I would end up in the town of Silverton some 20 miles away. Round trip it would be 40 miles, and I began doing this ride almost weekly.
I remember the corn, berry, and wheat fields between Salem and Silverton. The partial cloudy days offered partial relief from the hot summer sun. I would race the cloud shadows on the roads. I learned to take plenty of water and a tool kit to change a flat, and an air pump. I became very self sufficient. Then the traffic was always very light, and people were pretty polite, nearly always moving over to make plenty of room for the lone cyclist. I met few other cyclists out there.
In the 1980s, I began taking off after school into the Salem downtown to hang out with some friends at the Game Alliance of Salem. I got into role-playing games and we had the use of this big room in back of a game store. The store was on High street, where now a shoe repair store is. I would ride down to the Game Alliance most nights of the week, and sometimes stay there well past midnight, especially in the summers playing various role playing games (AD&D, Champions, Call of Cthulhu).
And, I still took rides into the country often, venturing west, to Monmouth, and once far east, up the Santiam Highway. I had one incident while riding at night into the downtown. One night on D Street I ran into a parked car near North Salem High. I did not see the dark car in the poorly lit area of the road. I destroyed that bike in a split second, the impact bending the frame and forks. It was my favorite bike, a gift from my parents. A red Raleigh Reliant bought from the Bike Peddler. The event was enormously stressful to me. The accident seemed simply stupid and wasteful and taught me an important lesson in being careful with the things you value, especially if they can’t be easily replaced . I tried to ride the bike afterwards but I ended up having to rebuild another to suffice.
One summer, I took a part time job weeding onions in Lake Labish. The lake bed is all that is left the the former lake, the marshes and lake having been drained in the 19th century to make way for agricultural lands. The lake bed is a dark loamy earth, perhaps one of the richest soils in the world, and some of the most sensitive of crops are planted there. That year it was Walla walla onions. I would get up about six in the morning to ride to the field, about five miles from my house. I would ride down Cordon road northwards, then into the windy roads into a region of orchards. The farm dogs here would chase me coming and going. For two weeks, I would weed in the field until about noon, even though that year the summer heat got up into the 100’s, very unusual for the Willamette Valley. One morning I woke with a cough and flu like symptoms. I had gotten a pneumonia bug and was forced to quit the job and spend a month laying about the house getting better. That summer was over before I had gotten to enjoy it, but I did learn to appreciate crossword puzzles and word searches.
My time cycling the area around Salem taught me a lot about being self-reliant and what I could do if I set my mind to complete something. Nothing stood in my way when I cycled. I don’t recall being stopped by rain or cold or any other weather from getting where I wanted to go. I learned that I had a talent for dead-reckoning. I always know where I am and where north, south, east and west are, regardless of where I am. I can find my way to a location without directions, if I have been there once before.
Some of the most powerful lessons I learned in the 1990s. My studies of the tribes of western Oregon led me to a greater understanding of the original peoples of the area around Salem. The Santiam Kalapuya had villages in and around Salem. Some of the place-names that survive are Chemeketa and Chemawa, probably original village names for a village at Lake Labish and one where downtown Salem is today. The realization of what had occurred historically to their lands in the 1840s and 1850s is extremely powerful. The farmlands east of Salem were appropriated by settlers before the tribes had signed the treaties. There was never a war with the Kalapuya peoples over the land, and many instead became farm workers for the settlers. By the time of removal of the tribes in 1856, there were only a few dozen in the area of Salem, most having died of introduced diseases.
One Kalapuya man Chief Quinaby remained around the town well into the 1880s and became a symbol of the last of the Kalapuya people. Those few Indian people who remained in the towns off of the reservation at Grand Ronde, made it appear that the Kalapuya people were dying as a race. Most of the average Oregonians never saw Indians, the tribes being forced to remain on the reservation by federal policy. So the mild summers I had been cycling through the countryside, was a product of 130 years of colonization of Oregon. My great ancestor, Chief Santiam, who signed the treaty of the Willamette Valley, through me, and other relatives, had returned to the traditional homeland. I grew up in my original homeland, and my sense of the world developed there.
Cycling was good to me for many years. After graduation from McKay High in 1983, I moved to Petaluma, California to live with relatives for a time. I lived in my aunt and uncle’s house for about 2 years. That house was the home of my great aunt Eva and great uncle Axel and was being rented by my aunt and uncle, Katie and Del Morris. The house on I Street Extension was a couple miles from the downtown. I Street Extension was the original homestead of my mother’s side of the family, the Evans family who immigrated to the United States from Ireland. The road was gravel for a portion, then became a rough two lane road the widened to a wide city lane. There were lots of hills on that road, but I had a job with a rubber stamp manufacturing company and I would ride into work everyday once them moved into the downtown. Previously the company had rented the two original homestead houses of my great grandparents and great great grandparents. The business was originally run out of the barn of my ancestors.
After a few years I moved into a series of roommate situations. Over the next 8 years, I figure I moved into a new rental situation about every 6 months. For a few years I maintained my reliance on my bike for commuting. I did not get a license and a vehicle until I moved out of Petaluma. Still I would ride my bike to most errands and to took many trips to the coast, once Santa Rosa to the coast down Highway 1, to Two Rock, through Petaluma and back to Santa Rosa. Several times I took Highway 12 in a full circle through Sonoma, Santa Rosa and Petaluma. Several times I would travel to the coast to go body surfing. This was always an very enjoyable time for me and the summers in California seemed to go on forever.
I then discovered mountain bikes. I began taking off road trails into regional parks for a new adventure. I had a small truck so transporting the bike was easy. I discovered the ridge trail at Bolinas and took that alone or with friends on many excursions. The trail had a great view of the coastal hills and the weather was always perfect. The trail circled back on Highway 1 to Olema. Mountain biking became a passion for me. I would take weekly trips up Annadel State Park in Santa Rosa. The three tiered hilly terrain was perfect for the technical uphills, and the ultra fast downhills. I even did a race at Annadel, the Rockhopper in 1986. I finished the race and wanted to go further in racing , but I did not have the support to continue training. In about 1989 I lived in Two Rock, CA, across from the Coast Guard Training center outside of Petaluma. It was quite remote, and I was working in Santa Rosa as a manager in the Marys Pizza Shack near Annadel. During the summer, I decided to ride to work for much of the season. It was a good 25 miles, 50 miles round trip but I did the commute on my bike for much of the summer.
The latest chapter in cycling was in Eugene, Oregon while attending the University of Oregon. beginning in 1994. I had a small truck, but most of the time I simply parked it and rode the bikes around town. Its so much more convenient and cheaper to ride a bike there. Parking at UO is absolutely the worst among state universities, and the area is riddled with bike paths. Many of my final years in Eugene were spent riding across the gravel parking lot of Autzen Stadium to cross the bike bridges over the Willamette River to the University.
As a student of Oregon history the names of John McLaughlin and Jason Lee are giants. The imbue the spirit of Oregon pioneerism in all of its horrible realism. To read of their exploits, is like viewing Mt. Hood today, they are ever present, involved in everything, and towering over the exploits of most others. In their time, what they accomplished for settlement and for providing a place for settlers to gain land, resources and security, is nothing short of astounding.
John McLoughlin is the larger of the two, with a greater more robust history. He provided the anchor of civilization, and did not discriminate against the Americans in their quest for new lands. He was the perfect host, giving in the extreme, and being and becoming the role of the landed gentry of the area, in ways that his contemporaries in England did not or would not accomplish. He was by and large fair with native peoples in the midst of their demise, and employed them fairly. He established Fort Vancouver, where he was the Chief Factor, the literal ruler of the territory, and had the power of life and death over all people in the area, given him by the Hudson’s Bay charter, signed by the King of England. Outside of this fort was Kanaka Village, a multi-national admixture of people from many tribal nations. In fact, Fort Vancouver between 1824 and 1850 was likely the most diverse place on the face of the earth, with Canadians, Scots, Irish, French, Metis (French-Indian), Hawai’ians, Spanish, Americans, and over 25 different tribes represented at the village. As many languages were also spoken there. They and their wives and children help run the fort and provided the services, all paid for by the fur trade.
The Americans who began come by the thousands in the 1840s, first came to the fort, to meet with wonderful hospitality from McLoughlin. These Americans, were by and large drawn to Oregon by the actions of Jason Lee, Lee a Methodist priest, had established a mission at Champoeg, and after his wife died, went on a tour of the east, through the American states, to attract more people to move to and settle in the Willamette Valley. The term that many writers used was “Eden” in describing the valley. Lee was aided to his land claim by McLoughlin, but Lee established the permanent American presence in the valley, while McLoughlin represent the British.
This story of early pioneerism, is how Oregon history is normally written in the first hundred years of Oregon. The story is only one half of the story as while all of this amazing work was being accomplished, the Tribes of the region were still there. The tribes contributed in many ways to the settlement of the Americans and the British. They were the hunters, guides, laborers, and traders for much of the first thirty years. They became migrant farm workers and ranchers. They harvested the agriculture and later help log the timber. They built fences and were present in every major exploration of the region.They caused problems through thievery and murder, and were subject to thievery, murder and genocide at the hands of the early Oregonians. Several wars occurred in the region, mostly over the encroachment of the Americans into the lands of the tribes. The tribes still owned the lands that the Americans took many liberties with.
But McLoughlin and Lee were the organizers, facilitators, collaborators of much of the early history of pioneerism. Lee is perhaps a bit more negative in relation to the tribes, as he took Indian children from the Willamette Plains and forced them to work on his farm while they underwent education, or reeducation to become Americans. This was the first of the Indian boarding schools in Oregon, and perhaps set the model for Off-reservation boarding schools of later times. For their work and place in history, McLoughlin and Lee have been honored with statues in the Capitol rotunda in Washington, D.C. as representing Oregon. For over 70 years they have resided there. Ironically, McLoughlin lost his land claims in Oregon City, even after he became an US citizen and had been mayor of the town, in a Congressional act. The Oregon Treaty of 1850 stated that British subjects would be able to keep their land claims, but they were eventually pushed out in favor of the Americans.
But these Canadian born men, their statues are now to be replaced. The State committee has decided to replace both statues. Several names have surfaced for replacement, Chief Joseph, Hatfield, Packwood, McCall, and Abigail Scott Duniway.
It is my opinion that if a replacement is necessary, for at least Lee it is warranted. My choices would be Chief Joseph and Tom McCall. Joseph is perhaps the most nationally known Native figure in US history, outside of Geronimo or Chief Seattle. What the Nez Perce endured and what Joseph did during and after the war, warrant his place on this list of replacements.
Tom McCall is an easy choice. He established much of the environmental policy that created today’s Oregon culture. I could easily see McCall as a statue.
McLoughlin and Lee have had their time, they will maintain their place in history regardless of whether they have a statue in the Capitol. The statues will return to Oregon and become important landmarks in the state. It is time to recognize the Native peoples of this state, what they went through over the past 160 years. Then McCall in his work for the future of Oregonians, embodies the spirit of Oregon
Tribes are sovereign governments. All tribes have their unique history. Their history is unique in many ways from that of the colonial countries that took over their lands. All tribes in the United States and Canada have history before this colonization and a new history afterwards. The new history, whether 400 years old or 100 years old include the removal of the tribes from their traditional lands, the subjugation of their people to new cultures and ways of learning, and a modification of their lifeways. At one dimension that is the way things have always worked in the world, when two people meet one another and collide, there is a negotiation that takes place which is not always fair to all. Usually changes come from those encounters. But what has occurred since the Europeans came is so dramatic that whole societies went extinct by diseases, tribes were imprisoned on reservations, and they were forced to alter their ways of living dramatically.
Still, tribes survived the worst of the catastrophe, or most did, and are now rebuilding. Tribal governments and societies now deserve to begin rebuilding the monuments of their society to empower their people. Healing needs to take place, and concepts and images of empowerment need to be part of what is restored. People need these things to look to for pride in their people, culture and nation.
Some years ago I noticed that this development was missing from the restoration of many tribes, and at my own. As a cultural leader, I engaged in several projects to bring back our tribal names into regular usage, then on erecting tribal monuments within our original lands. I engaged in advisory committees to help drive the development of tribally centered histories and programming. From 2006 to 2014, I was successful in helping name bridges, native centers, schools, and parks. Then numerous tribal histories were erected in our lands to teach everyone our histories. I helped with those projects, writing most of the narrative for the signs. Finally, the ultimate development came with the completing of the tribal museum, and the exhibits curation program. This program became award winning and began numerous projects every year telling different aspects of the tribal story.
There are a few projects which never got instituted. The recognition of tribal holidays and tribal chiefs of the tribe. I was able to get the tribe to post the significant events of the tribe on the various calendars, and reader-boards, but never instituted as official holidays. And- perhaps four years ago I put together list of the chiefs I could find on treaties and documents. This list has never been accepted nor implemented by the tribe. The list is over one hundred individuals. On this Presidents’ Day in the United States 2015, tribal people deserve to know and honor their leaders of the past. Our leaders, chiefs, headmen, and women leaders deserve to be recognized for what they did for the tribe, for their tenacity, for the cost they pay for a thankless job, and for continuing and maintaining the tribe through its hard times. The jobs do not pay nor reward enough those who take the leadership, and in the end, people tend to forget the history of accomplishments. Leadership is more than making decisions, but charting a direction, employing all resources, and gaining the support of the people.
If we think of the tribe as more than a corporation, and business, with only shareholders, then its a hollow shell. The tribe is in reality a society, a tribal community with great diversity and resiliency. The tribal community is more than the sum of the money or the finances that the tribe invests every year. Cultural development needs to be a equal part of what happens at the tribe on a regular basis. The cultural restoration of life-ways, and an equal investment in healing of the tribe from generations, over-160 years of war, disease, genocide, relocation, death, termination, and the loss of identity. This is a long-term persistent, multi-generational set of issues which deserve the full attention of the tribal government. Recognizing our tribal leaders is only one small part of healing from our history.
For those who read this and want to learn of the chiefs of the tribe – Here they are listed. I do not have all of them fully researched, but they all relate to the tribe. There are others as well, please submit information about the following list and the reference to the information. The leaders recognized in history are mostly men, as most-times women’s stories were never taken down nor did the Americans allow women to be in charge of much of anything. But there are significant women leaders from the 1970s to the present that have served the tribe as leaders. (I will work on a companion page that honors the women leaders.)
And, If anyone wants to take on a project to link of the names on the treaties with their names at the reservation, please connect with me.
Early Chiefs of Grand Ronde in Treaties and Other Documents
|Record #||Common Name||Name variants||Title||Tribe/band||Documents signed|
|1||Kiakuts||Ki-A-kuts, Ki-ac-Kuts, Ki-a-cut (1851)||Head Chief, first Chief, Principal Chief (1851)||Tualatin (Qualichah), Wapato Lake, Chehalem Band, Tualatin band of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Twalaty Treaty April 19, 1851|
|2||Le Medecin||Le Medecin, Doctor, La Medicine (1851)||Second Chief||Tualatin band of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Twalaty Treaty April 19, 1851|
|3||Wapato Dave||Wapito Dave, Yat-Skaw, or Dave,Yats-kow||Third Chief||Tualatin band of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|4||Kno-tah||Subordinate Chief||Twalaty Treaty April 19,1851|
|5||Shap-h, or William||First Chief||Yamhill Band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|6||Yah-whos alias Thomas||Principal Chief||Yamhill||Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851|
|7||Es to le alias Henry||Subordinate Chief||Yamhill||Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851|
|8||Ai-tip alias Antoine||Subordinate Chief||Yamhill||Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851|
|9||Peter Sulkey||Peter Sulkey (Shelkeah, David)||Second Chief||Yamhill Band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|10||Cha-ah, or Jesse||Third Chief||Yamhill Band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|11||Dabo, or Jim, Daboe (1851)||First Chief, Principal Chief||Cheluk-i-ma-uke band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851|
|12||Sco-la-quit, or John, Scho-la-que (1851)||Second Chiefsubordinate||Cheluk-i-ma-uke band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851|
|13||Yah-kow or Kompetine, Yoh-kow (1851)||Third Chiefsubordinate||Cheluk-i-ma-uke band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851|
|14||Ah-mo, or George||First Chief||Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|15||Himpher, or Hubbard||Second Chief||Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|16||Oh-no, or Tim||Third Chief||Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|17||Ma-mah-mo, or Charley Peter||First Chief||Chem-a-pho or Maddy band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|18||Quineflat, or Ben||Third Chief||Chem-a-pho or Maddy band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|19||Cha-che-clue, or Tom||Second Chief||Chem-a-pho or Maddy band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|20||Luck-a-ma-foo, or Antoine,||First Chief||Che-lam-e-la or Long Tom band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|21||Hoo-til, or Charley||Second Chief||Che-lam-e-la or Long Tom band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|22||Qui-a-qua-ty, Quia-quaty, Quai-eck-e-te (1851)||First ChiefPrincipal Chief||Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Treaty with Molalle May 6, 1851|
|23||Chief Yelkas||Yalkus||Second Chief||Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Treaty with Molalle May 6, 1851|
|24||Kow-ka-ma, or Long Hair, Kaw-ka-ma||Third Chief||Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|25||Crooked Finger||Subordinate Chief||Molalle Tribe||Treaty with Molalle May 6, 1851|
|26||Kiles, or Jim||First Chief||Calapooia band of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|27||Kow-ah-tough, or John||Second Chief||Calapooia band of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|28||Anta-, An-ta||First Chief||Winnefelly and Mohawk bands||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|29||Quil-al-la, or John||Second Chief||Winnefelly and Mohawk bands||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|30||Mequah or Dick||Winnefelly and Mohawk bands||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|31||Yack-a-tee, or Sam, ,||First Chief||Tekopa band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|32||To-phor, or Jim Brown||Second Chief||Tekopa band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|33||Hal-la-be, or Doctor, Hal-la-le||Tekopa band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|34||Pulk-tah||Second Chief||Chafan band||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|35||Tumulth||Tum-walth||First Chief||Wah-lal-la band of Tum-watersCascades tribe||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|36||Obanahah||O-ban-a-hah||Second Chief||Wah-lal-la band of Tum-watersCascades Tribe||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|37||Chief John Wachino||Watch-a-no, Chief John Wachino||First Chief||Clack-a-mas tribe||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|38||Te-ap-i-nick||Second Chief||Clack-a-mas tribe||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|39||Wal-lah-pi-coto, Wal-lah-pi-cate||Third Chief||Clack-a-mas tribe||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|40||Oregon City John||Lallak, Lal-bick or John, Oregon City John||Clow-we-wal-la or Willamette Tum-water band;||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|41||Cuck-a-man-na or David||Clow-we-wal-la or Willamette Tum-water band;||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|42||Tiacan||Tow-ye-col-la, or Louis||First Chief||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851|
|43||Joseph Hutchins||Yelk-ma, or Jo, Alquema, Joseph Hutchins, Joseph Hudson||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851|
|44||La-ham, or Tom,||Third Chief||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|45||Joseph Sangretta||Joseph Sanegertta, Joseph Sangretta, Senegertta||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|46||Pullican, Pul-i-can||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|47||Te-na, or Kiles,||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|48||Pul-kup-li-ma, or John, Pul-kup-ti-ma||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|49||Sallaf, or Silas||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|50||Hoip-ke-nek, or Jack||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|51||Yepta, Yeptah||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|52||Sat-invose or James,||Santiam bands of Calapooias||Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855|
|53||So-pham||Santiam||Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851|
|54||Coast-nah (1851)||Principal Chief||Santiam Band of Moolalle||Santiam Moolalle Treaty of May 7 1851|
|55||Chasta Tom||Shasta or Chasta Costa|
|57||James Selquia (Selqia)||Sub-chief||Wapato Band|
|60||Chief Keosnose||Columbia River|
|61||Polk Scott||Yoncalla||Headman, leader, and organizer of off-reservation gatherings in the southern Willamette Valley.|
|62||Chief Jo, Aps-er-ka-har, Jo-aps-er-ka-har, Aps-so-ka-hah, Horse-rider, or Jo||Head Chief principal chief||Takelma||Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Amendment 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854|
|63||To-qua-he-ar, Sam To-qua-he-ar, Ko-ko-ha-wah, Wealthy, or Sam,||Subordinate ChiefSecond chief||Takelma||Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854, Itchkadowa, Applegate Band of Rogue River Indians (applegate Rpt)|
|64||Te-cum-tom, Elk Killer, or John, Ana-chah-a-rah, John||Fourth Chief||Takelma||Rogue River 1853Rogue River 1854|
|65||Chol-cul-tah, Joquah Trader, or George||Takelma||Rogue river 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854|
|66||Jim Ana-cha-a-rah||Subordinate Chief||Takelma||Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854|
|67||Lympe||Takelma||Rogue River 1853|
|68||Sambo||Third Chief||Takelma||Rogue river treaty 1854|
|69||Te-wah-hait, or Elijah||Takelma||Rogue river treaty 1854|
|70||Telum-whah, or Bill||Takelma||Rogue river treaty 1854|
|71||Hart-tish, or Applegate John||Takelma||Rogue river treaty 1854|
|72||Qua-chis, or Jake||Takelma||Rogue river treaty 1854|
|73||Tom||Takelma||Rogue river treaty 1854|
|74||Henry||Takelma||Rogue river treaty 1854|
|75||Louis Nepisank||Napesa, or Louis, Na-pe-se, Louis Nepissank, Louis la Pe Cinque||Head Chief||Umpqua Tribe||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|76||Peter, or Injice , Peter McCoy (McKay?)||Second Chief||Umpqua tribe||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|77||Chief George, Cheen-len-ten or George||Head Chief||Umpqua Tribes||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|78||Tas-yah, or General Jackson||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854|
|79||Nessick||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|80||Et-na-ma or William, Billy (Molala?)||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|81||Nas-yah or John||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854|
|82||Absaquil or Chenook||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854|
|83||Jo||Yoncalla||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854|
|84||Tom||Chief||Yoncalla||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854|
|85||Chief Halo||Halo, Halito, Cama-phee-ma, Fearn||Head Chief||Yoncalla||Treaty with Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854?|
|86||Chief Bogus||Chief Bogus||Umpqua||Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|87||Quin-ti-oo-san, or Bighead||Principal chief||Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians||Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853|
|88||My-n-e-letta, or Jackson||Subordinate Chief||Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians||Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853|
|89||Tom, son of Quin-ti-oo-san,||Subordinate Chief||Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians||Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853|
|90||Tom, Tal-sa-pe-er||Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians||Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853|
|91||Steencoggy||Molala||Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|92||Lattchie||Molala||Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|93||Dugings||Molala||Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|94||Counisnase||Molala||Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|95||Cars||Calapooia or Umpqua?||Treaty with the Molala 1855|
|96||Jes-tul-tut, or Little Chief||Quil-si-eton band, of the Chasta tribe of Indians,||Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854|
|97||Ko-ne-che-quot, or Bill||Na-hel-ta band of the Chasta tribe of Indians,||Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854|
|98||Se-sel-che-tel, or Salmon Fisher, Se-sel-chetl||Cow-nan-ti-co, bands of Scotons,||Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854|
|99||Kul-ki-am-i-na, or Bush-head, Kul-ke-am-ina, Bushland||Sa-cher-i-ton, band of Scotons||Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854|
|100||Te-po-kon-ta, or Sam||Na-al-ye band of Scotons||Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854|
|101||Jo||Chief||Grave Creek band of Umpquas||Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854|
|102||Bas-ta-shin||Sa-cher-i-ton, band of Scotons||Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854|