The Molalla tribes, North, Santiam, and Umpqua valley (southern), were traders between the Chinookans to the north, the Klamaths to the south and the Paiutes to the east and the Kalapuyans in the west of their territory. Their name is a corruption of the Chinook Wawa word “ulali” meaning berry or huckleberry.
The reasons for the elimination of federal management of Indians were many. A primary reason was the tribal reservations contained the last undeveloped western lands, which had some of the last untouched natural resources in the United States. Many reservations contained significant stands of timber and clean water resources, as well as significant underground mineral deposits.
In 1845, before the waves of settlers had come to the Oregon Territory, a confederation of six Oregon tribes worked together to begin to expand their resources and wealth. The “Kayuse, Wallawalla, Spokans, Nes Perces, Ponderays and Snakes” sought to create vast cattle ranches in their territories. Dr. Elijah White (Indian agent) reported the happenings of their grand enterprise to buy cattle in California from the Spaniards and drive them back to Oregon.
Melinda Marie Jette’s 2015 book, At the Hearth of the Crossed Races, expands upon previous historical analysis of the beginnings of the Oregon territory, the fur trade and tribal relations in Western Oregon. Jette’s premise, that there has been an “inclination to overlook the French Canadian trappers, and by extension their bicultural families and Native kin,” is well founded. This is a timely addition to the literature of the Oregon Territory.
Very great site with good info and images about native plants.
My friend from Grand Ronde has written an interesting blog post on burning and Indian land management. As he says, 100,000 Native Foresters made Oregon’s forests.
There are some interesting books on Native land management in the far west: Indians, Fire and the Land edited by Robert Boyd, Keeping it Living edited by Douglas Deur and Nancy Turner, and Tending the Wild by Kat Anderson.