The period of Treaties begins in 1851 when some 19 treaties are written with western Oregon tribes. These treaties fail to be ratified.
In 1853 begins another era of treaties under Joel Palmer. Palmer wrote at least seven successful treaties for western Oregon and works on treaties for eastern Oregon with Isaac Stevens. Additional treaties are written with the Nez Perce, Klamath, and Paiute peoples.
Treaties are agreements between the tribal nations and the United States for sale of the tribal lands. Tribes are promised money, supplies and services to remove to a permanent reservation for their home. By-and-large, the federal government does pay the tribes as agreed. But payments are late, supplies are cheap or not enough, and the management of the reservations is quite bad. Many native people die of mismanagement, starvation, malnutrition, violence, during the period of the early reservation. Then reservations reductions take more resources and land from the tribes. the western Oregon tribes and Klamath are terminated in 1954, meaning their treaties are terminated. This act, without express approval of the tribes is a breach of treaty terms. Seven tribes are restored in the 1970’s and 1980’s.
Treaties of Oregon tribes give some rights to tribes who desire hunting, fishing and gathering rights. But other treaties, which do not express these rights, do not address hunting, fishing, and gathering at all, and so western Oregon tribes then have the opinion that they did not have these rights taken away. Treaty debates are the backbone of all tribal histories in the present era and provide important context for tribes claiming sovereign rights.