Essay originally written in 2007. DGlewis Klamath Tribal Termination The last Indian lands, mainly contained within reservations, contained some of the last untouched natural resources in the United States. Many reservations contained significant stands of timber and clean water resources, as well as significant underground mineral deposits. The problems with these natural resources being on reservations was that private companies seeking to mine or log these resources had to not only negotiate with the federal government but also with Indian Tribes. This led to costly legal and economic impediments to the exploitation of these resources. In addition, as some exploitative practices destroyed large tracts of land for generations, and sometimes forever in the case of Uranium mining, many Tribes would not agree to such contracts. For water resources, the access rights were much more complicated. Tribes depend upon rivers, streams, and lakes for traditional cultural practices, like fishing, travel, and trade with neighboring tribes. The right to continue to fish
Lewis, David, Termination of the Confederated tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Dissertation, 2008. (Pre-final draft, 2007) Chapter 11 Conclusion White Americans are concerned about rights, while Native Americans are more concerned about responsibilities. Roberta Connor, Director Tamaskilist Museum, Confederated tribes of the Umatilla, Willamette University, February 1, 2008 Chapter Outline This chapter draws together many of the strands of thought presented in this research. Discussed are the resultant effects of termination, including urban Indians and efforts for restoration. Finally, the socio-political situation of the Grand Ronde tribe is related to other decolonization scholarship from American Indian and other Indigenous scholars. Discussion In looking back at termination, it is impossible to assign one clear event or reason that caused the event to occur for Oregon Indians. It is more correct to assume that termination was the culmination of many events, and of many politicians working to solve individual problems.
Lewis, David, Termination of the Confederated tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Dissertation, 2008. (Pre-final Draft, 2007) Chapter 10 Restoration and Identity This policy of forced termination is wrong, in my judgment… The special relationship between Indians and the Federal government is the result instead of solemn obligations which have been entered into by the United States Government- Richard Nixon Chapter Outline This chapter explores the historical events around restoration of the western Oregon tribes, in particular the Grand Ronde Reservation. I also discuss effects of termination on tribal members and tribal society. Contemporary challenges for tribal members seeking to restore their identity are discussed. The Grand Ronde situation is related to the theories of indigenous scholars working to understand the process of the restoration of tribal societies. Introduction The restoration era for Oregon tribes encompasses the period from approximately 1969 to the present. Regardless of the apparent economic and political
Lewis, David, Termination of the Confederated tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Dissertation, 2008. (Pre-final draft 2007) Chapter 9 The Post-Termination Era Chapter Outline This chapter discusses and presents information about what effects termination had on the tribal people. Included are oral histories from tribal elders who experienced termination firsthand. I also present how people survived through the termination era, and the work to begin restoration of the tribes. Introduction Following the termination period came a time of confusion for many Indians. Before termination, individual Indians and tribes and their affairs were mainly managed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Now all management was lifted, and the Indian peoples were left to make their own way in society. Before termination, Indians did not pay taxes while living and working on tribal lands. Now their property and work was fully taxed. Before annual funding and support was given to tribal governance and infrastructure,
Lewis, David, Termination of the Confederated tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Dissertation, 2008. (Pre-final draft, 2007) Chapter 8 Federal Indian Termination, 1943-1961 Termination is one of the most destructive, one of the most awful things that has ever happened to any people here in the United States – Bob Tom 2006. Chapter Outline This chapter addresses the history of the events around termination. Included are the events that occurred at the Grand Ronde tribe, the confusion surrounding termination, questions about Indian consent for termination, and the final details of termination. I use documented discussions and events around the termination of the Klamath tribe to explain many of the decisions to terminate the western Oregon tribes. Wherever possible, Indian perspectives and oral histories are drawn into the discussion to portray the nature of the termination process and effects on Native communities using Native perspectives and voices about termination. Information