Development of Tribal Cultural Identity at the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation

A good number of people have over the years shown some confusion about the identity of the tribal members at the Grand Ronde tribe. Many natives and non-natives still do not understand the impact of the removal of the people from their lands, their assimilation to American society, and the somewhat unique situation of being terminated in 1954.  It is not that termination is unique to Grand Ronde, because 109 tribes were terminated nationally, but there are few other reservations that can claim 27 to 35 tribes and be terminated, leaving many people without federal status and related to so … Continue reading Development of Tribal Cultural Identity at the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation

John Collier and Indian Termination Policy

As Commissioner of Indian Affairs, John Collier was a long-term advocate for Indian tribes. In the 1920s, John Collier, a trained sociologist, led efforts in Washington, D.C. to repeal the Dawes Indian Allotment Act (1887) and its overt attempt to assimilate Indians. John Collier was very critical of the Indian Office and in 1928 wrote the Meriam Report, published as, “The Problem of Indian Administration” with the support of Congress. In 1962, John Collier had this to say about his earlier understandings of Indian society. “In those years, I still took for granted our modern fatalism: that the Indian’s spirit, … Continue reading John Collier and Indian Termination Policy

The 1855 Umpqua Reservation Census

Some recent census research revealed a census I had not yet analyzed. Luckily, a brief search of my records found that I had previously collected the census, enabling some efficient analysis. I was looking initially at a “1960” Census of Calapooia and Umpqua Indians on the Grand Ronde reservation. It still unclear what this 1960 census is yet. I think it is a Indian Claims roll for descendants of these two tribes who may be eligible for payments. The Grand Ronde tribe was terminated in 1954-1956 and so in 1960 all members were terminated Indians, but there was at least … Continue reading The 1855 Umpqua Reservation Census

Klamath Tribal Termination

Essay originally written in 2007. DGlewis Klamath Tribal Termination The last Indian lands, mainly contained within reservations, contained some of the last untouched natural resources in the United States. Many reservations contained significant stands of timber and clean water resources, as well as significant underground mineral deposits. The problems with these natural resources being on reservations was that private companies seeking to mine or log these resources had to not only negotiate with the federal government but also with Indian Tribes. This led to costly legal and economic impediments to the exploitation of these resources. In addition, as some exploitative … Continue reading Klamath Tribal Termination

Essential Historic Federal Government Documents of Grand Ronde (Document link)

Tribal people have asked for years about their treaties and about many of the original federal documents which shaped the tribe. Many people have been told or taught erroneous facts of the tribe and have an imperfect understanding of dates and documents. This is completely understandable as our history has been very diverse and complex and it very tough to put together all of the pieces. Most of these documents are available online in some manner and I have used them for years to work on our tribal histories. They are treaties, an executive order, the 1936 Constitution, the termination … Continue reading Essential Historic Federal Government Documents of Grand Ronde (Document link)