Influenza on the Reservation

The tribes removed to the Grand Ronde Reservation in 1856 never realized the safety and security of a reservation they were promised in seven treaties. They were forced into poverty, living on whatever the federal government was able to sent to them from the east coast. The first years were full of starvation deprivation, and … More Influenza on the Reservation

Genealogy of Racism on American Indians

Notes transcribed from Smedley, Audrey. Race in North America, Origin and Evolution of a Worldview, 2nd edition, Westview press, 1999, Comments are my own. The origins of racism in America as employed by the United States Indian Service are in the English treatments of the Native people of Ireland.[1]  The English people for centuries attempted … More Genealogy of Racism on American Indians

Native Details of the Battle of Hungry Hill

As noted by Dr. Mark Tveskov in his 2017 article “A “Most Disastrous” Affair: The Battle of Hungry Hill, Historical Memory, and the Rogue River War” (OHQ Vol. 118, no. 1- find the full text on Academia.com) the battle was one of the most famous for Oregon and perhaps the most disastrous for the Oregon … More Native Details of the Battle of Hungry Hill

Agent of Rebirth, Kalapuyan Culture in Linn County

The Kalapuyans, for their part, accepted the settlement of the whites at first, as they saw the great wealth in new things brought to them, metals, fabrics, weapons, and beads for jewelry were much sought after. But as always, there was settlement which brought came diseases, competition for food and land, and competing cultural worldviews. … More Agent of Rebirth, Kalapuyan Culture in Linn County

The Umpqua River Indians Prepare for Removal

William Martin, the Sub-Indian Agent of the Umpqua and Coos Bay was appointed to the position by Joel Palmer in June 1853. He worked to understand the tribes of the Umpqua better, to follow Palmer’s orders and describe the tribes as best as he could. He did this for more than six months without even … More The Umpqua River Indians Prepare for Removal