Category: Oregon indians

Contributions of William and Almira Raymond to Native Administration in Oregon

William Raymond was a sub-Indian agent from 1851 until at least 1857. He administered the tribes first at the Astoria sub-agency, then later moved the agency to Tillamook. In 1856-1857 he was at the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation. Raymond and his wife Almira were among the members of the Great Reinforcement, a contingent of largely

Continue reading

When the Roads in Grand Ronde Were Paved

  Until about 1923, all roads on the Grand Ronde Reservation were “improved roads.” They were originally trails used for horse and buggy and then later graveled and some were planked. The improved gravel roads were cheap to produce and maintain but would get muddy and worn down quickly in the winters. Native people were

Continue reading

Wagon Roads From Grand Ronde to the Coast

In the 1860’s, the Indians of the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation needed a route to get to the coast to gather fish. The Indian agents developed a fishery at the Salmon River and allowed the tribes to travel the mountain trials to the river to gather fish. The trail was originally small and barely able

Continue reading

Devil’s Lake and Salmon River Encampment

Devil’s Lake is in Lincoln City, in fact it is the only such lake and state park completely contained within a city in Oregon. The lake extends along the eastern edge of Lincoln City and is defined by a ring of vacation and residential homes which ring the lake on all sides. The lake is

Continue reading

Conditions of the Alsea Indians and the Salmon River Encampment 1876-1878

As addressed in previous essays, in about 1875, most Indian annuities for the Western Oregon tribes ended because the 20 year payments were exhausted. This is true for the Siletz Reservation, for the handful of tribal people who could claim a ratified treaty, and for the Grand Ronde Reservation, where nearly all of the people

Continue reading