Willamette Valley Treaty is sent to Washington, D.C. Jan. 22, 1855

Willamette Valley Treaty Origins of the Willamette Valley treaty

Influenza on the Reservation

The tribes removed to the Grand Ronde Reservation in 1856 never realized the safety and security of a reservation they were promised in seven treaties. They were forced into poverty, living on whatever the federal government was able to sent to them from the east coast. The first years were full of starvation deprivation, and … More Influenza on the Reservation

Genealogy of Racism on American Indians

Notes transcribed from Smedley, Audrey. Race in North America, Origin and Evolution of a Worldview, 2nd edition, Westview press, 1999, Comments are my own. The origins of racism in America as employed by the United States Indian Service are in the English treatments of the Native people of Ireland.[1]  The English people for centuries attempted … More Genealogy of Racism on American Indians

Post Indianism

Gerald Vizenor has created the idea of the Post Indian, native peoples who are living a new consciousness beyond the stereotypes of victim-hood about Indians. Post-Indians defy the stereotypes and now live in a new realm of their own creation. His analysis seems metaphorical and philosophical and I would extend it further. Many native peoples … More Post Indianism

Gendered terms in Kalapuyan

This essay began some years ago when I was working on the Kalapuya lessons project with Esther Stutzman and her family. We discussed in our group the lack of gendered terms in the language. I was thinking perhaps we are just missing something, but even after consulting with Henry Zenk, an anthropological linguist who studies … More Gendered terms in Kalapuyan