Joel Palmer’s Defiant Cattle Drive Through Grand Ronde, 1874

In 1874, Joel Palmer was again an independent contractor for the Indian service, after having completed a two-year stint as the Indian Agent for the Siletz Agency. Palmer was constantly working on business deals, and one which he hatched was a plan to raise cattle on the Coast, where they would be in readily available … More Joel Palmer’s Defiant Cattle Drive Through Grand Ronde, 1874

When Annuities Ended on the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation

The closure of the 1853-1855 treaty annuities in 1875 was a time of hardship for some Oregon reservations. For 20 years the reservations of Oregon were fully or partially supported by annual payments based on the annuities of these treaties. But when the annuities ended, the federal government had made no plans for support of … More When Annuities Ended on the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation