Category: colonization

Stories of Change Among the Clackamas at Grand Ronde

The Clackamas Come to Grand Ronde Reservation Preparing to Leave The Clackamas are addressed in letters as living in small encampments near Oregon City. They likely had a small site at Wilamet village on the Clackamas, and a small reserve on the west side of the river at the falls. Victoria Howard’s family appear to

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Bison of the Western Rockies

  For years, I have stated that the tribes did not have bison in Oregon, so they would not have made tipis. This is why the tribes have plankhouses and longhouses made from woven mats. Tipis require a large animal to cover the tipi with their hides. This has made sense to most people. We

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Conditions of the Alsea Indians and the Salmon River Encampment 1876-1878

As addressed in previous essays, in about 1875, most Indian annuities for the Western Oregon tribes ended because the 20 year payments were exhausted. This is true for the Siletz Reservation, for the handful of tribal people who could claim a ratified treaty, and for the Grand Ronde Reservation, where nearly all of the people

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War on the Umpqua Tribes and Removal to the Umpqua Reserves

Much has been written and published of the Rogue River, Modoc, and Yakima Wars in the Oregon Territory. These wars were, by-and-large, reactions of the tribes to extreme attacks on their land, and their survival.  There are number of other such conflicts that did not reach the status of war for historians. In the Umpqua

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Stingy American Settlers of the Willamette Valley

  The Kalapuyan tribes of the Willamette Valley have lived here for more than 10,000 years, some 50,000 generations of people. The whole of the valley was owned by these tribes who had distinct yet overlapping territories. A few sections of the valley were owned by relative newcomers, the Molallans, who lived in the foothills

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