Tribal Reactions to the 1851 Treaties

In the history of treaty making , there were two treaty periods for western Oregon, 1851, and 1853 to 1855. The 1851 treaties, 19 of them, were negotiated with tribes in four locations, Champoeg, Tansy Point, and Port Orford were the sites of the main negotiations, The final location, Oregon City, was where the Clackamas treaty was negotiated twice and finally agreed to by the tribe in late 1851. Anson Dart, the Indian Superintendent of Oregon then takes the treaties to Washington, DC and there, in 1852 they died in Congress, Dart finally advising Congress to never ratify them because … Continue reading Tribal Reactions to the 1851 Treaties

Camas Journal 2023: Baby Camas, Mowing, Cultural Fire

This year I tried to get out there into the field when the camas is beginning to erupt from the ground. I am not sure I have seen the baby camas when it just erupts before, only when it is already in full leaf. It helps that I transplanted some camas, and seeded camas some years ago at my home so I can see on a daily basis the progress of camas in my area of the Willamette Valley. When I saw it erupt in my well-managed and weeded garden, I then knew I needed to get out into the … Continue reading Camas Journal 2023: Baby Camas, Mowing, Cultural Fire

Palmer Strategizes Treaty-Making, 1853

In 1853 Joel Palmer, newly appointed Indian Superintendent of Oregon, was working to keep the peace between the tribes and settlers in Oregon. The plan was to remove the tribes and allow the settlers to take their lands so that the natural resources may be better used. Palmer was in full agreement of his role to help colonize the Indians and in his many letters philosophized extensively about the benefits of assimilating the tribes to civilization. But Palmer was also a humanist and wanted to tribes to be fairly dealt with by the white Americans. He saw them as people … Continue reading Palmer Strategizes Treaty-Making, 1853

California Native History Contexts

In recent months I have been delving into records of the California Superintendency. I have studied several California tribes in the past, namely the Tolowa and Shasta tribes, and my master’s paper was about the Tolowa Fish Camp at Indian beach. I have not taken the time previously for much more reading about California Natives because I know its a big state with a complex history. I have had my hand full with the 60 tribes of western Oregon. But going through federal microfilm for the California Superintendency, from the beginnings of United States Indian affairs is quite instructive. The … Continue reading California Native History Contexts

The Upper Umpqua and Yoncalla are Removed to the Umpqua Reservation

A subject which has had little clarity in the past is when were the Umpqua and Southern Kalapuya, the Yoncallas, resettled to the Umpqua Reservation at Coles Valley. The Umpqua and Calapooia Treaty of November 29, 1854 is the treaty of land cession for these tribes and sets in motion the removal of the tribes to a permanent reservation. But that removal did not happen immediately and significant plans had to be made to create the temporary Umpqua Reservation, and develop it to the point that the tribes may be removed there. The illustration of this process and event was … Continue reading The Upper Umpqua and Yoncalla are Removed to the Umpqua Reservation