General Wool in California

The following is a series of statements by General John E. Wool and his underlings in the 1850s, from their administrative moorings in Benecia, California, the offices of the Department of the Pacific. General Wool was in this time pacifying California for settlers, working on arrangements with Mexico following the Spanish-America War, and also dealing … More General Wool in California

Nicholas Day Saves the Umpqua Indians

The following story appeared in the Oregonian in 1900. Nicholas Day was an Indian agent who was hired by Joel Palmer to manage the Umpqua Indians. Day took his job seriously at a time when there was much unrest in the region. The Rogue River Indian war was raging through southern Oregon with many settlers … More Nicholas Day Saves the Umpqua Indians

Acknowledgement is Long Past Due for Attempts to Exterminate the Tribes of Oregon

Presently, there is an apology bill being considered in the Oregon State Senate for the Modoc Indian War of 1872-1873.  This apology is long past due to the Modoc people who were forcibly removed to Oklahoma Indian County after the battlefield trials of their leaders. Numerous leaders of the Modocs, including Captain Jack were hung … More Acknowledgement is Long Past Due for Attempts to Exterminate the Tribes of Oregon

Memorializing Our Tribal Peoples Who Gave All So We Might Exist

  For over 500 years we have endured increasing colonization of our lands and spaces. A wave of death came from the east and passed through all indigenous nations. Nothing was spared; no corner of our lands or cultural spaces was left to the people. Some estimates suggest 90 million died, through wars, through slavery, … More Memorializing Our Tribal Peoples Who Gave All So We Might Exist

When the Settlers Cleaned up their Lands, California 1850s

When settlers came to the west, the tribes tolerated their presence, many even welcomed them because of the trade possibilities.  The first settlers may have been deferential and honorable, perhaps because of how many tribal people remained, but  soon, by 1844, many thousands began claiming lands without talking to the tribes first. These settlers were … More When the Settlers Cleaned up their Lands, California 1850s