General Wool in California

The following is a series of statements by General John E. Wool and his underlings in the 1850s, from their administrative moorings in Benecia, California, the offices of the Department of the Pacific. General Wool was in this time pacifying California for settlers, working on arrangements with Mexico following the Spanish-America War, and also dealing … More General Wool in California

Acknowledgement is Long Past Due for Attempts to Exterminate the Tribes of Oregon

Presently, there is an apology bill being considered in the Oregon State Senate for the Modoc Indian War of 1872-1873.  This apology is long past due to the Modoc people who were forcibly removed to Oklahoma Indian County after the battlefield trials of their leaders. Numerous leaders of the Modocs, including Captain Jack were hung … More Acknowledgement is Long Past Due for Attempts to Exterminate the Tribes of Oregon

Clearing the Land and Making all Indians Good: The Massacre at Bear River, Utah

  In 1863, the California Volunteers under Colonel Patrick E. Connor (3rd Volunteer Regiment, California Cavalry), massacred either 300 or three thousand Ute (Shoshone) Indians in Cash Valley (Cache Valley-Battle of Bear River, February 20, 1863), Utah. The first account, a book written by William F. Drennan addresses over 30 years of his experiences in … More Clearing the Land and Making all Indians Good: The Massacre at Bear River, Utah

A State of Open Warfare: the Chetko Massacre revisited

Rape, threats of violence, and Murder were the tools used by the Whitemen who came to the region encompassing northern California and southern Oregon in search of opportunity and gold. The coastal towns of the tribes, in the vicinity of the much more recent white settlements were particularly susceptible to violence owing to the concentration … More A State of Open Warfare: the Chetko Massacre revisited

The Most Persistent Attempt to Exterminate the Tribes, Beginning with the Yontocket Massacre 1853

As related in my previous essay about the Chetko Massacre, there was a massacre of the Tolowa in 1853. The Palmer account suggest the previous massacre was the work of the same 8 or 9 men who destroyed the two Chetko villages in March of 1853. Annette Reed, a Tolowa descendant (Tolowa Dee-ni Nation),  and … More The Most Persistent Attempt to Exterminate the Tribes, Beginning with the Yontocket Massacre 1853