General Howard Visits Grand Ronde, 1876

In 1874, General Oliver Otis Howard, who had served in the Civil War was the Commander of the Department Columbia took command of any Indian conflicts in the region.  General Howard’s fame in the Northwest came from his command and actions during the Nez Perce War. In 1876 General  Howard visited the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation. He wrote a letter describing his visit and published it in the Chicago Advance Newspaper. The letter was republished in the Annals of the Catholic Indian Missions in America and the records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia Volume 17, in part … Continue reading General Howard Visits Grand Ronde, 1876

Bison of the Western Rockies

  For years, I have stated that the tribes did not have bison in Oregon, so they would not have made tipis. This is why the tribes have plankhouses and longhouses made from woven mats. Tipis require a large animal to cover the tipi with their hides. This has made sense to most people. We did have structures among some tribes that looked like a tipi, the Molala for one had a tipi-like mobile living structure that was covered instead in woven mats. But, while bison are not known for the past few centuries west of the Rockies, there has … Continue reading Bison of the Western Rockies

Negotiating Colonization in Eastern Oregon: Nez Perce Speeches

*Note- these speeches were transcribed from reports in the M234 microfilms for the Washington Superintendency. They occur near the end of the Cayuse War when it appears that the Army assumed that The Nez Perce were hiding members of the Cayuses, relatives of the Nez Perces. What the transcriptions do not detail is that the Nez Perces and the Cayuses (and all other tribes) were being invaded by the Bird Peoples (American Pioneers who moved westward: like migrating birds), and the sovereignty and rights of the Tribes were not being honored. They knew this and yet were trying to live … Continue reading Negotiating Colonization in Eastern Oregon: Nez Perce Speeches