Category: columbia river

Early History of the White Salmon Reservation

One of the shortest lived reservations was the White Salmon Reservation, on the north bank of the Columbia River across from Hood River. The Reservation was established to hold the Columbia River Indians, with villages on the north bank of the Columbia River, for a temporary time until they were remove permanently to Yakima. The

Continue reading

The Willamette Valley Treaty (Treaty with the Kalapuya, Etc.) Signed January 22 & Ratified March 3, 1855

The Willamette Valley Treaty was designed to remove the tribes from western Oregon, from lands desired by American settlers. When the treaty was finally signed, on January 22th, at Dayton, Oregon, at Joel Palmer’s DLC homestead (Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon). The tribes were ready to sign, to be removed from the vicinity of

Continue reading

Stingy American Settlers of the Willamette Valley

  The Kalapuyan tribes of the Willamette Valley have lived here for more than 10,000 years, some 50,000 generations of people. The whole of the valley was owned by these tribes who had distinct yet overlapping territories. A few sections of the valley were owned by relative newcomers, the Molallans, who lived in the foothills

Continue reading

Anson Dart and the Willamette Treaty Commission

Many scholars of Oregon tribal history have assumed, as have I, that Anson Dart, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon from 1850 to 1852 was responsible for negotiating treaties with the western Oregon tribes. In fact, numerous histories of this time intimately describe these responsibilities, but this may not have been originally Dart’s responsibility

Continue reading

Dart’s Instructions of Colonization and Assimilation in 1850

In 1850, the United States passed The Oregon Donation Land-claim Act. This act gave American men 640 acres, one square mile of free land in Oregon, allowed other claims by wives (160 acres), and children, and proved up on the previous land claims of other Americans. A recent manuscript by Julius Wilm (2017) points out

Continue reading