Category: California Natives

Dentalia Shell Money: Hi-qua, Alika-chik

Dentalia shells, a mollusk, is collected from the sea floor off of Vancouver Island and is used by native peoples in a broad region of North America.  They grow up to 3 inches (or more) long for the North West Coast dentalia, while 2…

The War of Extermination and Traditional Food Gathering by Tribes in California, 1856

The tribes of California had 18 treaties negotiated with them in 1851. Agents McKee, Barbour and Wozencraft split the state in thirds and negotiated with all of the  tribes they could in a limited time. Redick McKee traveled from Sutter’s Mills (Sacramento) north, through…

Tolowa Dee-ni Fish Camp & Chronology

In about 1997, I met Loren Bommelyn as he began a Masters degree in Linguistics at the University of Oregon. For his second and last year I was his roommate on in a University of Oregon Moss Street graduate house. Loren and his family…

The Grand Enterprise of Six Tribes in 1845

In 1845, before the waves of settlers had come to the Oregon Territory, a confederation of six Oregon tribes worked together to begin to expand their resources and wealth. The “Kayuse, Wallawalla, Spokans, Nes Perces, Ponderays and Snakes” sought to create vast cattle ranches…

George Gibbs and Chinuk Wawa 1851

Years ago my research on the records on the tribes revealed to me that George Gibbs was a significant part of the history of the tribes at the time of the treaties. An early ethnographer and Chinuk Wawa speaker and a translator for  both…

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