When the Settlers Cleaned up their Lands, California 1850s

When settlers came to the west, the tribes tolerated their presence, many even welcomed them because of the trade possibilities.  The first settlers may have been deferential and honorable, perhaps because of how many tribal people remained, but  soon, by 1844, many thousands began claiming lands without talking to the tribes first. These settlers were … More When the Settlers Cleaned up their Lands, California 1850s

Klamath River Reservation and White Privilege, 1856

Continuing with the ndnhistoryresearch series on the massacres of the Tribes on northern California and Southern Oregon coast, I have found a few more documents that address the removal of the tribes to the Klamath River Reservation and their rights and conditions. These reports are from the microfilm copies of the correspondence series for the … More Klamath River Reservation and White Privilege, 1856

The Most Persistent Attempt to Exterminate the Tribes, Beginning with the Yontocket Massacre 1853

As related in my previous essay about the Chetko Massacre, there was a massacre of the Tolowa in 1853. The Palmer account suggest the previous massacre was the work of the same 8 or 9 men who destroyed the two Chetko villages in March of 1853. Annette Reed, a Tolowa descendant (Tolowa Dee-ni Nation),  and … More The Most Persistent Attempt to Exterminate the Tribes, Beginning with the Yontocket Massacre 1853