Major Benjamin Alvord discusses Eastern Oregon Settlement, 1853

In 1853, the former Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Oregon Anson Dart had been forced to resign as none of his nineteen treaties with the tribes were ratified. Joel Palmer took this position in late May. Palmer was already a well-healed politician, and probably knew most people in Oregon at the time, and had previously … More Major Benjamin Alvord discusses Eastern Oregon Settlement, 1853

Modeste Demers Ethnographic Descriptions of the Tribes, 1839

Modeste Demers was assigned with the Oregon Territory, in 1837, at the same time as Francois Norbert Blanchet and they traveled together overland to their assignment in canoes and on horseback, in Hudson’s Bay trading party.  Along the way, Demers and Blanchet take time to have short missions with the tribes and baptize more than … More Modeste Demers Ethnographic Descriptions of the Tribes, 1839

Blanchet’s Mission to the Cascades, 1841

Blanchet’s mission to the Cascades is perhaps his first visit to this location. His interactions with Tamakoun, also later called Tomaquin, are quite revealing of the tribe and its divisions. The notation about villages on the two banks suggests a different leadership and some division in the tribe. Tamakoun does not suggest that the attentions … More Blanchet’s Mission to the Cascades, 1841

Blanchet’s Missions to the Clackamas, 1841

The following is a Notice, Notice No. 4, part of a series of reports by the Catholic missionary Francois Norbert Blanchet (September 30, 1795 – June 18, 1883) from 1841 to 1842 about his missionary conversion work among the tribes of the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, in the middle Chinookan area. Blanchet visits the villages … More Blanchet’s Missions to the Clackamas, 1841

Nichaqwali Watlala peoples at Blue Lake

The Nichaqwali people, a Cascades/Watlala Chinookan band, lived at the juncture of several cultural groups that lived in the larger region of the lower Columbia and who interacted along the Columbia River and at what is now called Blue Lake. The village itself sits within the territories of two major ethnographic tribes on the Columbia, … More Nichaqwali Watlala peoples at Blue Lake