California Native History Contexts

In recent months I have been delving into records of the California Superintendency. I have studied several California tribes in the past, namely the Tolowa and Shasta tribes, and my master’s paper was about the Tolowa Fish Camp at Indian beach. I have not taken the time previously for much more reading about California Natives because I know its a big state with a complex history. I have had my hand full with the 60 tribes of western Oregon. But going through federal microfilm for the California Superintendency, from the beginnings of United States Indian affairs is quite instructive. The … Continue reading California Native History Contexts

Differential Immigration and Citizenship in the 19th Century in Oregon

The immigration debate that is being discussed nationally, has caused me to think about what immigration was like in the 19th century in Oregon. Too often today immigrants are discussed as being synonymous with “criminals” as if the very action of immigration is a criminal act. But, as many know, immigration into the USA has been one of the mainstays of the American democracy, its how the US got so many people from so many countries seeking a new country to survive and thrive in. In the 19th century Americans took to immigrating into the Oregon Territory without requesting this … Continue reading Differential Immigration and Citizenship in the 19th Century in Oregon

The Neo-Colonization and Termination of Native Reservations 2017

Standing Rock camp is rounding up this week, after at least 10 months of activation to stop oil pipelines through North Dakota. At stake was the health and welfare of the Stand Rock Sioux who live on the Standing Rock Reservation. The encampment attracted upwards of 20,000 people who rotated in and out of the encampment, who wanted to protect the region from the probability of another oil pipeline breach, a fairly common problem for pipelines in the region. The pipeline was halted just before bridging the Cannonball river. The protectors faced severe opposition with state police and hired guards attacking the protectors … Continue reading The Neo-Colonization and Termination of Native Reservations 2017

Mott’s Special Report on Grand Ronde and Siletz in 1858

In the first few years of the Western Oregon reservations, the Coast and Grand Ronde reservations, the federal government was still working to develop a good system of Indian administration. Many of the Indians were just recently arrived from a war, and were envisioned as being potentially violent.  On the reservations, there were murders, and many Indians became alcoholics, while the Indian agents tried to get access to funding, and feed and care for the tribes. Funding was tough to come by so much of the provisioning came from credit accounts. Then provisions and food was early on being sent … Continue reading Mott’s Special Report on Grand Ronde and Siletz in 1858