Category: assimilation

Dispelling the Cloud of Black Eternity: the Willamette School at Grand Ronde in 1857

Once the tribes were removed to the reservations, additional work began to civilize them. The Indian Agents and teachers disregarded the tribe’s cultures and previous life-ways and immediately began a program of education. Adults got their education through changing the ways they used the land. No longer were the tribes allowed to freely travel about

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They Were of Good Character and Industrious, Kalapuya and Umpqua Off-Reservation Allotments

Indian Off-Reservation Allotments Members of the Halo Family of Yoncalla Indians, were allotted with off-reservation Indian Allotments in 1892. Most of their allotments were in an areas covered by GLO maps 20S, 4W; 23S, 4W; and the vast majority in 22S 4W, a mountainous and hilly region of central-western Oregon, on the edge of the

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Differential Immigration and Citizenship in the 19th Century in Oregon

The immigration debate that is being discussed nationally, has caused me to think about what immigration was like in the 19th century in Oregon. Too often today immigrants are discussed as being synonymous with “criminals” as if the very action of immigration is a criminal act. But, as many know, immigration into the USA has

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Dart’s Instructions of Colonization and Assimilation in 1850

In 1850, the United States passed The Oregon Donation Land-claim Act. This act gave American men 640 acres, one square mile of free land in Oregon, allowed other claims by wives (160 acres), and children, and proved up on the previous land claims of other Americans. A recent manuscript by Julius Wilm (2017) points out

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