Joe Lane 1849 : Report of the Tribes and Bands of the Oregon Territory

General Joe Lane was an early politician and war hero for Oregon. He served as the Indian Superintendent for Oregon as well as Governor of the territory in 1848 and 1849, and in 1850 participated in battles and conflicts in southern Oregon, famously making peace with the Rogue River Confederacy in the first agreement of Southern Oregon, a treaty of peace.  In 1853, he leads another battle with the Rogue River tribes, at Evans Creek and forms another peace agreement with the confederacy at Table Rock. Previously, Lane had been engaged as an officer in the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War, in towns like Puebla. The outcome of the war was the United States took sole possession of half of the Mexican lands (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and parts of other states) for United States expansionism. In a very real sense, Lane was also engaged with taking lands from the Oregon tribes, by tamping down their uprisings, making

read more Joe Lane 1849 : Report of the Tribes and Bands of the Oregon Territory

Lt. William A. Slacum, United States Spy in the Oregon Territory, & Chief Slacum of the Clowewalla

Lt. William A. Slacum, a Navy purser, was sent by the President, through the Department of State, as a special investigator to the Oregon Territory to investigate the Britain operations and to take stock of the tribes and the resources in the territory. Slacum was alone, except for one servant, and was not sent with supplies or any obvious purpose for going to Oregon. The President, Andrew Jackson, was reacting to the obvious dominance of the British in the Oregon Territory despite the Treaty of 1818 which provides for a joint occupation of the territory by the two world colonizing powers. The Treaty of 1818 was an agreement worked out, following the War of 1812, which saw ports of the United States attacked by British warships, including the takeover of Fort Astoria by the British in 1813, all over trade dominance. Jackson was a noted expansionist and looked to expand the U.S.’s interests on the west coast. Slacum’s  instructions from

read more Lt. William A. Slacum, United States Spy in the Oregon Territory, & Chief Slacum of the Clowewalla

The Original 1855 Belden Map, Compared to the Redrafted Version

In 1855, the United States was on a campaign to purchase all of the land from the Oregon Tribes and remove them to reservations. Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, was working hard to make all arrangements for the removal of the tribes. In January of 1855, he met with the Kalapuya, Molalla and Cascades chiefs and they signed onto the Willamette Valley Treaty. By January 22nd, all of the tribes were signed for the Willamette Valley,  the Cascades foothills, and the central section of the lower Columbia River. The treaty was sent to Congress and was ratified in early March 1855. So, after, Palmer began removing all of the tribes to temporary reservations in preparation for a move to a permanent reservation on the Oregon Coast. These details are now well recorded in numerous essays on this blog and in history books about the time period. Some important facts still raise questions. What is the exact ceded

read more The Original 1855 Belden Map, Compared to the Redrafted Version

Salmon-Skinned Aristocracy: Beginnings of Oregon Statehood

Robert Shortess was an 1839 emigrant to Oregon. In 1843 he was was elected to the Oregon Territorial Legislature in the 2nd wolf meeting (teh founders of Rome were suckled by a wolf). This early Oregon government worked to take control of the territory, from the British. In 1844, Shortess and some 65 other American settlers signed a petition to Congress, largely written and coordinated by Shortess, filing charges in Congress against the Hudson’s Bay Company, for unfair trade practices. Shortess, and co-author George Abernethy, claimed that John McLoughlin, and the Hudson’s Bay Company, took complete control of all trade on the Columbia, despite the treaty agreement that Great Britain and the United States would co-occupy the territory. Shortess claimed the HBC controlled of the Salmon trade out of the Columbia, and as such was running a  “Salmon-Skinned Aristocracy” that had ruled the country for some time. The unrest between the Americans and the British, brought on by Shortess’ petition,

read more Salmon-Skinned Aristocracy: Beginnings of Oregon Statehood

American Complicity in Genocide In Oregon

Over the years, I have made innumerable presentations about the history of the Oregon Tribes. My history is developed from my own research into the tribal histories and I have addressed many topics which have been important to understanding the history of the tribes, and why tribes live the way they live today.  I have delved into topics which have not been well covered by past or current scholarship. Much of the information is not taught or known about by many Oregonians. I have used this statement many times to catch the attention of people who admittedly never learned the history of the tribes of Oregon.  “The settlers tried to exterminate the Indians.” I have used the words extermination, and genocide, and even holocaust in numerous occasions across the state. I might have turned  a few people off by stating this as I think many do not want to address these deeper topics as it perhaps addresses their own family history in

read more American Complicity in Genocide In Oregon