Conditions of the Alsea Indians and the Salmon River Encampment 1876-1878

As addressed in previous essays, in about 1875, most Indian annuities for the Western Oregon tribes ended because the 20 year payments were exhausted. This is true for the Siletz Reservation, for the handful of tribal people who could claim a ratified treaty, and for the Grand Ronde Reservation, where nearly all of the people fell under a treaty. The Molala treaty had not been ratified until 1859 so they have payments until 1879, while all of the Coastal Tribes did not have a ratified treaty and so they had no annuities. Because of this, the southern portion of the Coast reservation (1855-1875) named the Alsea Reservation, had contained a number of tribes from the southern and central coast that did not fall under any ratified treaty. Their Coast Treaty was never ratified despite many promises from Indian Agents. These tribes settled at the Yachats, Yaquina, and Alsea estuaries had continued to subsist and care for themselves. The Alsea reservation

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War on the Umpqua Tribes and Removal to the Umpqua Reserves

Much has been written and published of the Rogue River, Modoc, and Yakima Wars in the Oregon Territory. These wars were, by-and-large, reactions of the tribes to extreme attacks on their land, and their survival.  There are number of other such conflicts that did not reach the status of war for historians. In the Umpqua Valley there is such a history of attacks on the tribes. In 1855, within the Umpqua Valley was the Umpqua Reservation, at the forks of Calapooia Creek and the Umpqua. The reserve was created by the United States, in the Treaty of the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Indians, to hold the tribes of the valley temporarily until they should get a permanent reservation. In the valley there were three treaties, the Cow Creek (1853), the Umpqua and Kalapuya (1854), and the Molalla (1855) treaties. The Indians that signed the treaties were all moved to the Umpqua reserve in 1853 to 1855, where they remained,

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Trade Between the Interior and the Coast; Kalapuyans, Klikitats, Coosans

Previous to the Americans and the British In Oregon, the tribes had numerous interrelationships with one another. Trade was a major part of the lives of all tribes. Some tribes had vast resources, but only in a few items were they specialized. The Chinookans, had vast amounts of dried salmon because of owning the best salmon fishing sites on the Columbia and Willamette rivers, as well as access to all of the trade items in the Columbia River Trading region, a vast trade zone which stretched from the mid-west American plains to the Pacific Coast. While the Kalapuyans had lots of camas and wapato from the fertile inland valleys, they also could access the Columbia river trade when they visited the Clackamas villages at Willamette Falls. The Klickitat were elk hunters and they specialized in elk hide products. The Coastal tribes had vast amounts of ocean products, especially shells, which could be turned into sharp tools, or jewelry. For many

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Places that Floated, When the World Burned, & Dry-Land-Stranded Whales

Our tribal lands have seen innumerable natural disasters over the millennium.  Native people tried to interpret what was happening and preserved the history of the events in our oral histories. In the ethnographic era, (1870s-1940s) many of these stories were written down and preserved before, it was feared that, all languages and cultural traditions were going to be lost. John Peabody Harrington, an ethnographer, collected many stories from peoples in Oregon and he spent a good amount of time on the southwest Oregon coast. His records for the Coos Bay area are substantial. Broadly, there is a growing interest at interpreting Native Oral history as true history. Within these stories are preserved actual events. Geologists and Anthropologists are learning to interpret the stories and researching ways to track the stories to the actual events in the past. Certain stories, like volcanic eruptions are easy to look for geologically, and there is research now into documenting tsunami’s on the coast through

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